71 terms

Age of "Exploration"

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Vikings
Iceland was settled in the 9th century A.D. by what group?
Erik the Red
Who first went to Greenland after being exiled for three years from Iceland for murder. After his exile ended, he returned to Iceland and convinced some of the people to go to Greenland and found the first Viking colony.
Leif Eriksson
Who led the first confirmed expedition of Europeans to land on the continent of North America at a place they called Vinland?
Johannes Gutenberg
This man's invention of a printing press with movable type greatly reduced the cost and time required to make books. This led to the world's first mass produced book, his version of the Bible.
Henry the Navigator
Which Portuguese prince laid the groundwork for a new era of exploration?
Niña, Pinta and Santa Maria
What three ships were used by Columbus during his 1492 voyage?
Bartholomeu Dias
Who was the leader of the first European (Portuguese) expedition to sail around the southernmost tip of Africa into the Indian Ocean.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Who publicly condemned the cruel treatment of Native Americans by the Spanish?
northwest passage to Asia
England, France, and the Netherlands hoped to discover a
Samuel de Champlain
Known as the "Father of New France," __________ was the French explorer who founded Quebec. He explored the northeastern coast of North America and inland areas around Quebec and what later became New York. The large lake that straddles modern-day New York and Vermont is named after him.
gold and slaves
From their trading posts in Africa, the Portuguese traded for
Treaty of Tordesillas
The __________ was an agreement between Spain and Portugal that divided the non-Christian world between them. Spain was to get everything west of north-south line 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, and Portugal was to get everything east of the line.
Oklahoma
Hernando de Soto traveled as far west as present-day
encomienda
The right granted by the Spanish government to the conquistadors that turned Native Americans into slaves was called
John Cabot
Whose voyage was used by England as the basis for its claims to North America?
Ferdinand Magellan
This man led the first expedition to circumnavigate the Earth, though he didn't finish the journey. He was killed when he intervened in a local dispute in what is now known as the Philippines.
Aztec
What empire did the forces of Hernán Cortés conquer?
Marco Polo
Name the Venetian merchant who went on a 24-year journey to China and back with his father and uncle. Though not the first European to travel to China, his story was the first about the Far East to be widely circulated in Europe.
Amerigo Vespucci's
Seemingly one of the first Europeans to recognize the discoveries of Columbus as a "Mundus Novus" (New World), __________ name was given to the western continents.
(Álvar Núñez) Cabeza de Vaca
__________ first landed on the west coast of Florida as part of Narváez expedition. After becoming lost and separated from their ships, the expedition traveled from near Tampa Bay to the panhandle of Florida. They built rafts and coasted to Texas where they shipwrecked. Over the next 8 years, he and his dwindling number of companions lived among the Native Americans and traveled through the Southwest and down into present-day Mexico until finally reaching New Spain. He was one of only four survivors out of landing party of about 300.
Hernan Cortes
Name the Spanish conquistador who led the expedition that conquered the Aztec Empire.
Zheng He (Cheng Ho)
Name the Chinese explorer and diplomat who led expeditions throughout the Southwest Pacific Ocean and at least as far as the Indian Ocean coast of Africa.
Francisco Pizarro
Name the Spanish conquistador who led the expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
Hernando de Soto
Name the person who led the Spanish expedition that landed near Tampa Bay and traveled through much of the present-day southeastern United States before he died on the bank of the Mississippi River.
Ponce de Leon
Name the first governor of Puerto Rico and the leader of the expedition that "discovered" and named Florida.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Name the leader best known as the Spanish conquistador who led the first expedition across the Isthmus of Panama. They were the first Europeans to see the Pacific Ocean from the New World.
Christopher Columbus
This man led the first European expedition that "discovered" the New World while trying to sail west from Europe to Asia. He led a total of four expeditions to the New World, though he still believed them to be lands just off the coast of Asia.
Jacques Cartier
This man was a French explorer who led expeditions into the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River in what became Canada. These voyages established France's claim to the land they later settled.
Robert de LaSalle
This man led the first European expedition to travel from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico (mostly down the Mississippi River). He claimed the Mississippi River basin for France -- the Louisiana Territory.
Ahmad ibn Majid
This man was the Arab navigator and cartographer that helped Vasco Da Gama cross from Africa to India.
Vitus Bering
This man led a European expedition to explore Alaska's coast. Though Danish, he was sailing for the Russians.
Prince Henry "the Navigator"
Though he went on no voyages of discovery himself, __________ of Portugal sponsored more than 50 such voyages to explore the west coast of Africa.
John Cabot
_________ is the anglicized name of an Italian navigator who explored the coast of North America for England.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Who led a Spanish expedition into the American Southwest in search of gold (specifically the legendary Seven Cities of Cibola). Though he failed to find the riches he sought, current historians treasure the information his expedition recorded about the Southwest in the 1540s.
John Smith
Though he showed up in North America in chains, __________ became the leader of the Jamestown colony in Virginia and helped the colony survive its early "starving times" and conflicts with the Powhatan Confederacy.
Henry Hudson
This man was an Englishman who explored the northern Atlantic coast of North America while searching for a "Northwest Passage" to the Orient. A river, a bay and a straight he explored are named after him. He explored for both England and the Netherlands. His third voyage served as the basis for the claim on what became the colony of New Netherland.
Sir Francis Drake
Name the English privateer (sea dog /pirate) who was the second in command of the British fleet that defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588 and led the second expedition to circumnavigate the world (aboard the Golden Hind).
Pedro Alvares Cabral
In 1500 while on the way to India, an expedition led by __________ was blown off course in the Atlantic. They accidentally discovered (and claimed for Portugal) what was later known as Brazil
Pedro Menendez de Aviles
This man was the Spaniard that led the expedition that founded St. Augustine. He was also in command of the expedition that destroyed the French fort near present-day Jacksonville (Fort Caroline) and executed over 200 prisoners
privateer
A __________ was a person or ship with letters of marque authorized by one country to attack and seize another country's ships -- state sanctioned piracy.
Spanish Armada
The __________ was a failed attempt to invade England launched by Philip II in 1588.
Columbian Exchange
The long-term separation of the Americas from Africa and Eurasia led to differences in flora (plants), fauna (animals) and microbes (bacteria and viruses). When people began to regularly travel across the Atlantic in ships, it caused the __________, or the movement of flora, fauna and microbes between the formerly isolated continents.
conquistadors
The __________ were Spanish soldiers, explorers and conquerors who seized control of much of the Americas for Spain.
Northwest Passage
Many European explorers searched for a __________, or a way to sail between Europe and Asia by sailing north around Canada.
John Calvin
This man was an early leader in the Protestant Reformation. His teachings spread and became the basis of a theology known as Calvinism.
Martin Luther
In 1517, __________ wrote his 95 theses (a list of complaints about the Catholic Church) and helped start the Protestant Reformation. He later translated the Bible into German and helped organize what came to be known as Lutheranism.
plantation
A large farm that focused on the growing of cash crops and frequently used indentured servants or slaves as labor came to be known as a __________.
fur traders
Operating out of Canada and reaching far into the interior of North America, coureurs de bois were French __________ who traded with many different Native American tribes.
St. Augustine
The oldest European city in the continental United States is __________. It was founded by the Spanish to help protect its treasure ships which used the nearby Gulf Stream as part of their route back to Europe.
circumnavigate
If you __________ the world, then you have gone all the way around it.
strait
A (An)__________ is a narrow passage of water between two larger bodies of water.
King Henry VIII
After being denied an annulment, __________ broke from the Catholic church and made himself head of the newly created Church of England.
requerimiento
The __________ was a document read to Native Americans encountered by conquistadors. It was read to them in Spanish and demanded that the natives submit to the Spanish king.
Vasco da Gama
Leader of the first European expedition to sail around Africa and across the Indian Ocean to India
Roanoke
Site of England's first attempted colony in North America
Beringia
The earliest Native Americans crossed a "land bridge" called
maize
Originally a wild grass in Mesoamerica, _________ became the most important crop in many Native American societies.
Tenochtitlan
What was the capital of the Aztec Empire?
Inca
Which was the largest of the early American civilizations?
slavery
The Aztec forced the people of conquered lands into ____________________.
Renaissance
The historical period (approximately 14th to 17th century) of intellectual and artistic creativity is known as the
printing press
Which invention helped Marco Polo's Travels gain wider circulation?
Timbuktu
Under King Mansa Musa, which city became an important center of Islamic art and learning?
domesticate
__________ -- to tame (an animal), esp. by generations of breeding, to live in close association with human beings as a pet or work animal and usually creating a dependency so that the animal loses its ability to live in the wild. (from www.dictionary.com)
Bering Strait
The narrow body of water between Alaska's westernmost point and Russia's easternmost point is called the __________.
writing
The difference between history and prehistory is __________.
Maya
The only Pre-Columbian Native American society to fully develop writing
Anasazi (Ancestral Pueblo people)
The __________ lived in what became the four corners region of the United States. They were known for their cliff dwellings and sophisticated mesa-top irrigation systems.
Pope
The _________ is the head of the Roman Catholic Church.
monarchy
_________ -- a government headed by a king or queen.
China
Gunpowder was introduced to Europe from __________ by the 14th century.
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