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Politics of the United States
Gateway to Democracy Chapter 14
Terms in this set (31)
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review.
Confrontational legal process under which each party presents its version of events.
Lawsuit by a person, organization, or government against another person, organization, or government.
Judge-made law in England and the United States that results from gaps in statutory law.
Government prosecutions of an individual for breaking the law.
Federal trial courts at the bottom of the federal judicial hierarchy.
Special jury charged with determining whether people should be put on trial.
Respecting the decisions of other branches, or, through the concept of precedent, the decisions of earlier judges.
Authority of courts to declare laws passed by Congress and acts of the executive branch to be unconstitutional.
1789 Created the lower federal judiciary, district courts, and circuit courts of appeals.
Lawful authority of a court to hear a case.
Authority to hear a case directly from a petitioning party as in a trial.
Practice of reaching decisions based on the previous decisions of other judges.
rule of four
Supreme Court rule that grants review to a case if as few as four of the justices support review.
Senate Judiciary Committee
Standing Senate committee charged with reviewing judicial affairs, including federal court nominations.
Informal norm allowing a senator of the president's party to block judicial appointments from that state.
trial by jury
Method of placing the determination of issues of fact in a trial into the hands of fellow citizens.
writ of certiorari
Request to the Supreme Court that it review a lower court case.
writ of habeas corpus
Right of individuals who have been arrested and jailed to go before a judge, who determines whether their detention is legal.
Issued by King John
Originally an attempt to negotiate a peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons.
Promised protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice
Trial by order
ancient judicial practice by which the guilt or innoscence of teh accused was determined by subjecting them to an unpleasant, usually dangerous experience
Trial of appeal
The losing party in a decision by a trial court in the federal system normally is entitled to appeal the decision to a federal court of appeals
written law set down by a legislature
The US Constitution guarantees jury trials in all criminal cases and in all civil suits over $20
Judiciary Act of 1789
Article 3 was limited
An act to establish the Judicial Courts of the United States
Authority of a court to hear cases on appeals from lower courts
process by which the Supreme Court made some provisions of the Bill of Rights binding on the states
Approves a judge
judicial rulings suspected of being based on personal or political considerations rather than on existing law
Must have to go from State Supreme court to be seen in a US district court
How many district courts are there today
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