TExES EC-6 Science
This flashcard set was created by Dr. Jerry Whitworth at Texas Woman's University to assist students in reviewing science content for the EC-6 Generalist TExES exam.
Terms in this set (100)
An alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. These DNA codings determine distinct traits that can be passed on from parents to offspring.
A life cycle of certain insects, such as crickets and grasshoppers, characterized by the absence of a pupal stage between the immature and adult stages.
Metamorphosis refers to the way that insects develop, grow, and change form. Metamorphosis actually means "change". There are two types of metamorphosis--incomplete and complete.
About 88% of all insects go through complete metamorphosis. Complete metamorphosis has 4 stages:
Egg - A female insects lays eggs.
Larva - Larvae hatch from the eggs. They do not look like adult insects. They usually have a worm-like shape. Caterpillers, maggots, and grubs are all just the larval stages of insects. Larvae molt their skin several times and they grow slightly larger.
Pupa - Larvae make cocoons around themselves. Larvae don't eat while they're inside their cocoons. Their bodies develop into an adult shape with wings, legs, internal organs, etc. This change takes anywhere from 4 days to many months.
Adult - Inside the cocoon, the larvae change into adults. After a period of time, the adult breaks out of the cocoon.
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
species whose population size is rapidly declining and will become extinct if the trend continues
Condensation is the change of water from its gaseous form (water vapor) into liquid water. Condensation generally occurs in the atmosphere when warm air rises, cools and looses its capacity to hold water vapor. As a result, excess water vapor condenses to form cloud droplets. The upward motions that generate clouds can be produced by convection in unstable air, convergence associated with cyclones, lifting of air by fronts and lifting over elevated topography such as mountains.
Transpiration is the process where water contained in liquid form in plants is converted to vapor and released to the atmosphere. Much of the water taken up by plants is released through transpiration. It is difficult to separate the processes of evaporation and transpiration, so this transfer of water is sometimes simply called evapotranspiration. The U.S. EPA estimates that an acre of corn transpires 4000 gallons of water each day.
Evaporation is the process by which water is converted from its liquid form to its vapor form and thus transferred from land and water masses to the atmosphere. Evaporation from the oceans accounts for 80% of the water delivered as precipitation, with the balance occurring on land, inland waters and plant surfaces.
Cells need to make proteins. Those proteins might be used as enzymes or as support for other cell functions. When you need to make proteins, you look for ribosomes. Ribosomes are the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell. They are like construction guys who connect one amino acid at a time and build long chains.
areas in the cells of green plants that use pigments, called chlorophyll and carotenoids, to convert light energy to chemical energy used by cells. Chloroplasts concentrate chlorophyll in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. In part one of photosynthesis chlorophyll absorbs light energy to make ATP. The energy is used to split water, releasing oxygen.
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction. It is commonly the most prominent organelle in the cell. The nucleus is surrounded by a structure called the nuclear envelope. This membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The cell's chromosomes are also housed within the nucleus.
Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.
A device for weighing. It has a balanced beam and two pans. When the pans contain exactly the same mass the beam will be in balance. You can place an object in one pan and standard weights in the other to find what the object weighs.
Mass of an object
The mass of an object is a fundamental property of the object; a numerical measure of its inertia; a fundamental measure of the amount of matter in the object.
Weight of an object
The weight of an object is the force of gravity on the object and may be defined as the mass times the acceleration of gravity, w = mg
Density of an object
DENSITY is a physical property of matter, as each element and compound has a unique density associated with it. Density defined in a qualitative manner as the measure of the relative "heaviness" of objects with a constant volume.
A way to investigate things and propose explanations for their observations. Data is gathered, hypothesis suggested and observations recorded. In typical scientific inquiry, the process that we use involves formulating hypotheses and designing experiments to test them. This basic process also helps develop critical thinking skills.
In other words, it is a form of gathering scientifically fact-based new information in a systematic way as part of the inquiry and curiosity often leading to new scientific inventions. It also involves critical thinking skills.
a tentative theory about the natural world, a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena; a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory.
Mechanical energy can be either kinetic energy (energy of motion) or potential energy (stored energy of position). Objects have mechanical energy if they are in motion and/or if they are at some position relative to a zero potential energy position (for example, a brick held at a vertical position above the ground or zero height position).
Heat energy. Thermal energy is the internal energy of an object due to the kinetic energy of its atoms and/or molecules. The atoms and/or molecules of a hotter object have greater kinetic energy than those of a colder one, in the form of vibrational, rotational, or, in the case of a gas, translational motion
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its motion
energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor
that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position. Ex. stored energy
energy of vibrations carried by air, water, or other matter
Hydroelectric plants use moving or falling water to turn a generator and produce electricity. They usually have generators located at the base of a dam, and they raise the level of water behind the structure. The higher the water level behind the dam, the more potential energy it has. And by releasing water, the potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy to turn the turbines which turn the generators.
Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_hydroelectric_plant#ixzz23fWVXp8h
The process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind, thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits in succeeding generations.
A process by which pieces of DNA are broken and recombined to produce new genes. Genetic recombination is any process in which DNA sequences interact and undergo a transfer of information, producing new "recombinant" sequences that contain information from each of the original molecules.
the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae (Kingdom Protista). Plants need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place primarily in plant leaves, and little to none occurs in stems, etc
Acids are compounds that have a hydrogen ion connected to some other ion. Because the hydrogen ion is a positively charged ion, the opposite ion is a negative charged. One of the most well known acids out there is hydrochloric acid. When mixed with bases, become less powerful; turn litmus paper red; have a sour taste; corrosive on metals.
A base is a compound that has a hydroxide ion connected to some other ion. Because the hydroxide ion is negatively charged, the opposite ion is a positively charged ion. One of the most well known bases is sodium hydroxide. when mixed with acids, become less powerful; turn litmus paper blue.
When acids and bases react with one another they can neutralize each other, turning to salt and water.
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Glaciers and Great Lakes
The Great Lakes were formed many years ago during the ice age. As glaciers began to melt and slide they dug and cut deep gashes in the ground. These deep gashes or holes became the Great Lakes.
The Milky Way
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains the Earth. A galaxy is a huge collection of stars (suns). The name derives from its appearance as a dim "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky, in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual stars.
The atmospher layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs. It's the thinnest layer and is from 4 to 11 miles high (depending on latitude).
The layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases. As you get higher up in the mesosphere, the temperature gets colder. The top of the mesosphere is the coldest part of Earth's atmosphere.
The stratosphere is the second layer, as one moves upward from Earth's surface, of the atmosphere, and in which temperature increases as altitude increases.. The stratosphere is above the troposphere and below the mesosphere. Many jet aircraft fly in this layer because it is very stable.
The lower part of the thermosphere, where electrically charged particles called ions are found. Technically, it is not considered a separate layer of the atmosphere.
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases. Temperatures climb sharply in the lower thermosphere, then level off and hold fairly steady with increasing altitude above that height.
Very high up, the Earth's atmosphere becomes very thin. The region where atoms and molecules escape into space is referred to as the exosphere. The exosphere is on top of the thermosphere.
System that occurs naturally within the environment as opposed to a human-made system.
The lines of force surrounding a permanent magnet or a moving charged particle. They are produced by electric currents, which can be macroscopic currents in wires, or microscopic currents associated with electrons in atomic orbits.
A term for an ideal condition in which the interrelationships of organisms to one another and their environment appear harmonious, like a forest where everything is in balance. In reality, the balance is continually upset by natural events. In chemistry it can refer to chemical reactions that run in both forward and reverse directions and are called reversible reactions.
This term has different meanings in different contexts. In general, it is a system in which no matter is allowed to enter or leave. In thermodynamics, a closed system can exchange energy (as heat or work), but not matter, with its surroundings. In engineering it is defined as a bound system in which every input is known and every resultant is known (or can be known) within a specific time.
A hybrid is merely the offspring of two parents that are not genetically the same. This can happen naturally, or it can be done on purpose to create plant, for instance, that is resistant to certain types of disease. The drawback is that hybrids often lack genetic diversity and a new pest or disease can wipe out the entire crop since the plants are all exactly alike.
A technique that trains people to improve their health by controlling certain bodily processes that normally happen involuntarily, such as heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and skin temperature.
The salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Salt is a natural element of soils and water. Salinization can be caused by natural processes such as mineral weathering or the gradual withdrawal of an ocean. It can also be caused by artificial processes such as irrigation.
The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen is necessary for all life, animals, as well as plants. Although our air is composed of 78% nitrogen it is not in the form that plants can use. The nitrogen cycle explains the process of how nitrogen in the air is changed to a form that plants can absorb from the soil. It uses what is called "nitrogen-fixing" bacteria. View the attached image for details.
The pattern formed by a group of stars in the sky.
The transfer of thermal energy by particles of a liquid or gas moving from one place to another.
A material that an electric current can pass through easily.
Groups of living things and the environment they live in
The point on the surface of Earth that is right above the focus of an earthquake
The process by which winds and moving water carry away bits of rock or soil.
A break in Earth's crust along which rocks move. Earthquakes usually occur along fault lines.
Long roots that grow near the surface.
The preserved remains of an organism that lived in the past.
A force that keeps objects, usually molecules, that are touching each other from sliding past each other easily. Friction usually causes heat as the process allows molecules to release their thermal energy.
The border where two air masses meet. Usually results in a change in weather.
A universal force that pulls at objects and keeps objects in the universe in balance. On earth it is the force that keeps us from flying off into space and pulls us toward earth.
The warming of Earth caused by the atmosphere trapping thermal energy from the sun.
An environment that meets the needs of an organism. The place where an organism lives.
A mineral's ability to resist being scratched.
The amount of water vapor in the air
A rock that forms when completely melted rock hardens.
The bundles of light energy that transfer heat, the bundles of light energy that transfer heat.
The planets closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
A material that a current cannot pass through easily.
An animal without a spine (backbone). Ex. slugs, snails, bugs, earthworms, spiders, lobster, starfish, crabs, squid.
The space all around a magnet where the force of the magnet can act, produced by electric currents, which can be macroscopic currents in wires, or microscopic currents associated with electrons in atomic orbits.
An animal that has hair and produces milk for its young.
A rock changed by heat or pressure, but not completely melted. Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks.
The role or part played by an organism in its habitat.
The planets farthest from the sun; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
the amount of salt in water.
A rock formed by layers of sediments squeezed and stuck together over a long time. Sedimentary rocks are only a thin veneer over a crust consisting mainly of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
A group of objects in space that move around a central star. The order of the planets from the sun is: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
An electric charge that stays on an object.
The condition in which each feature on one half of an object has a matching feature on the other half.
A group of parts that work together as a unit.
a plant's single main root that goes deep into the soil.
An animal with a backbone (spine).
The process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state
Identified the 3 laws of motion, introduced the concept of gravity, demonstrated that white light contains many colors.
Used an early compound microscope to look at a thin slice of cork, a plant material and discovered the cells of organisms
Demonstrated that all objects fall at the same speed, showed that tall matter has inertia, used a telescope to see the rings around Saturn and the moons of Jupiter and reported that the planet and moon move, which resulted in his being persecuted.
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884). Credited with outlining the method and processes of heredity.
Realized that tiny organisms caused wine and milk to turn sour, showed that heating the liquids killed the germs (pasteurization), developed a vaccine for rabies.
United States virologist who developed the Salk vaccine that is injected against poliomyelitis (born 1914).
Helped to plan Washington DC; was the first black American to write a scientific book.
Second black woman to graduate from medical school. taught hygiene and childcare to families in poor neighborhoods
George Washington Carver
American botanist, agricultural chemist, and educator who developed hundreds of uses for the peanut, soybean, and sweet potato, prompting Southern farmers to produce these soil-enriching cash crops.
A Cuban doctor who discovered that mosquitoes carry yellow fever.
Won a Nobel Peace Price in Chemistry studying the effects of certain chemicals in the atmosphere.
Heat from the sun warms the air, which rises and creates a low pressure system; colder air higher up sinks and creates a high pressure system.
Gene that always shows itself. It's characteristics dominate.
Gene that is hidden when the dominant gene is present
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