the view that knowledge originates in and experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Mary Whiton Calkins
Early psychologist. Finished graduate program at Harvard, was refused PhD. Pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association.
Magaret Floy Washburn
Early psychologist. First woman to receive a psychology degree. Synthesized animal behavior with her book, The Animal Mind.
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most researchers today agree with (1) but not (2).
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
The inter-disciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
John B Watson and Rosalie Rayner
Working with Rayner, Watson championed psychology as the science of behavior.
A leading behaviorist who rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
Psychology's big issue. The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the intersection of nature and nurture.
The principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of Analysis
The different complementary views, from biological to physiological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, physiological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
A branch of psychology that the studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.
The study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principle of Natural Selection.
A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence human behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
The study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
The scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.
The study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Industrial-organizational (I/O) Psychology
The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Human Factors Psychology
The study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments.
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well being.
A branch of psychology that studies, assess, and treats people with psychological disorders.