71 terms

NCLEX Study nutrition

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Mg+ Foods
green stuff
halibut
tuna
summer squash
potatoes
seeds
avocado
raisins
milk
yogurt
peanut butter
spinach
mustard greens
broccoli
turnip greens
peppermint
cucumber
green beans
celery
kale
pumpkin seeds
sunflower seeds
sesame seeds
flax seeds
K+ Foods
FRUITS AND VEGGIES AND MEAT
avocado
banana
bell peppers
broccoli
brussel sprouts
cantaloupe
carrots
cauliflower
cucumber
cabbage
fennel
eggplant
kiwi
lima beans
spinach
tomatoes
parsley
apricots
ginger
strawberries
oranges
mushrooms
potatoes
raisins

fish
tuna
pork
beef
veal
Ca+ Foods
dairy
canned fish with bones
soy
collard greens
spinach
Phosphorous Foods
ANYTHING WITH PROTEIN
fish
pork
beef
chicken
organ meats
nuts
whole grain/breads/cereal
Iron Foods
breads
cereals
dark green veggies
meats
egg yolk
liver
Zinc Foods
Eggs
meats
protein rich foods
leafy veggies
Folic Acid Foods
green leafy veggies
liver
beef
fish
legumes
grapefruit
oranges
Niacin Foods
meats
poultry
fish
beans
peanuts
grains
Vitamin C Foods
citrus
tomatoes
broccoli
cabbage
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) Foods
pork
nuts
whole grains
cereals
legumes
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) Foods
milk
lean meats
fish
grains
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) Foods
meat
yeast
corn
poultry
fish
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
meat
liver
Vitamin A Foods
liver
egg yolk
whole milk
green or orange veggies
fruits
Vitamin D Foods
fortified milk
fish oils
cereals
Vitamin E Foods
vegetable oils
green leafy veggies
cereals
apricots
apples
peaches
blueberries
VItamin K Foods
dark green leafy veggies
herbs
prunes
cauliflower
cabbage
asparagus
chili powder, curry, paprika, cayenne
Tyramine Foods
aged cheeses
smoked fish
cured meats
beer and wine
banana
ginseng
sausages
sauerkraut
avacados
soy sauce
Normal total cholesterol
122-200 mg/dL
Normal HDL men
45-50 mg/dL
Normal HDL women
55-60 mg/dL
Normal LDL
60-180 mg/dL
Carbohydrate energy level
4 cal/g
Fat energy level
9 cal/g
Protein energy level
4 cal/g
What is the function of carbohydrates?
preferred source of energy
promote normal fat metabolism
enhance lower GI function
spare protein
Name the carbohydrates
Sugars, starches, cellulose
What is the function of fats?
concentrated source and stored form of energy
protect internal organs and maintain body temp
enhance absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
What is the function of proteins
made of amino acids that are critical to growth and development of tissues
build and repair body tissues
regulate fluid balance
maintain acid-base balance
provide energy
produce enzymes and hormones
What are essential amino acids?
required in the diet because the body cannot manufacture them:
histidine
isoleucine
leucine
lysine
methionine
phenylalanine
threonine
tryptophan
valine
What does Vitamin K do?
acts as a catalyst for facilitating blood clotting factors especially PROTHROMBIN
What does Vitamin C do?
essential for collagen production
vital component in wound healing
What does Vitamin A do?
maintains eyesight and epithelial linings
Clear Liquid Diet
provides fluids and some electrolytes to prevent dehydration
Clear Liquid Diet Indications
initial feeding after complete bowel rest
initially used for malnourished/starving person
bowel prep for surgery/tests and post op
fever
vomiting
diarrhea
gastroenteritis
pancreatitis
Clear Liquid Diet Nursing Considerations
deficient in energy and many nutrients
easily digested and absorbed
minimal residue in GI tract
unappetizing and boring
intended for short-term use
limit caffeine intake
no dairy
no fruit juices that contain pulp
Clear Liquid Diet Liquids and Foods
foods and liquids that are relatively transparent to light and are liquid at body temperature

water
bouillon
clear broth
carbonated beverages
gelatin
hard candy
lemonade
popsicles
decaf coffee and tea
Full Liquid Diet Indication
transition diet after clear liquids post op clients or clients who have difficulty chewing, swallowing, or tolerating solid foods
Full Liquid Diet Nursing Considerations
nutritionally deficient
clear and opaque liquid foods
and foods that are liquid at body temp
nutritional liquid supplement necessary for client on this diet more than 3 days
Full Liquid Diet Foods
plain ice cream
sherbet
breakfast drinks
milk
pudding
custard
strained soups
refined cooked cereals
fruit juices
strained vegetable juices
Mechanically Altered Diet
difficulty chewing
may require thickened liquids
depends on client need
may be pureed, chopped, mashed, ground
avoid nuts, dried fruits, raw fruits/veggies, tough salted meats, coarse texture foods
Soft Diet
difficulty chewing or wallowing

all foods are permitted but liquid, chopped, pureed, or soft consistency foods are preferred.

suck sour candy to produce saliva
mouth sores give cooler temp foods
encourage variety
provide plenty of fluid with meals
drinking through straw may be easier

avoid nuts, seeds, fried, whole grains, fruits and veggies
Low Residue, Low Fiber Diet
inflammatory bowel disease
partial obstructions due to inflammation/scarring
slowed GI motility

white bread, refined cooked cereals, cooked potatoes (no skins), white rice, refined pasta

limit/avoid raw fruits (except bananas), veggies, nuts, seeds, plant fiber and whole grains.

limit dairy to 2 servings/day
High Residue, High Fiber Diet
constipation
IBS
asymptomatic diverticular disease

provides 20-35 g of dietary fiber/day

fruits, veggies, whole grains

increase fiber gradually and provide adequate fluid to reduce abdominal cramps, bloating, diarrhea, and dehydration

limit gas forming foods
Cardiac Diet
restricts total amounts of:
fat (saturated trans, polyunsat, monounsat)
cholesterol
sodium
Fat Restricted Diet
abdominal pain
steatorhhea
flatulence
malabsoptive disorders
pancreatitis
gallbladder disease
GER

restricts total amount of fat
fecal fat test (3 day collection) indicate malabsorption w/extretion of more than 6 to 8 g of fat/day (or more than 10%)
High Calorie High Protein Diet
severe stress
burns
wound healing
cander
HIV
AIDS
COPD
respiratory failure
any other debilitating disease

encourage nutrient-dense, high cal, high protein foods: whole milk, milk products, peanut butter, nuts/seeds, beef, chicken, fish, pork, eggs.

encourage snacks b/w meals: milkshakes, instant breakfasts, nutritional supplements.
Carb-Consistent Diet
diabetes
hypoglycemia
hyperglycemia
obesity

exchange system Diabetic Association
Sodium-Restricted Diet
HTN
HF
renal disease
cardiac disease
liver disease

Individualized:
4 g Na+ daily (no-added salt diet)
2-3 g Na+ daily (moderate restriction)
1 g Na+ daily (severe restriction -rare)

encourage fresh food rather than processed.
some meds are high in Na+
salt subs may be possible but contain high amounts of K+
Protein-Restricted Diet
renal disease
liver disease

provide enough to maintain nutritional status but not an amount that will allow waste build up (40g-60g/day)

high quality protein
pastas, bread, cookies, wafers, wheat gelatin, powdered/liquid carbs, calculate veggies and frits

Limit milk, meat, bread and starch.
Renal Diet
acute/chronic renal failure
hemodialysis
peritoneal dialysis

controlled amounts of:
protein
sodium
phosphorus
calcium
potassium
fluids

possible modification of:
fiber
cholesterol
fat

most clients receiving dialysis need to restrict fluids
Low Potassium Modified Diet
hyperkalemia due to:
impaired renal function
hypoaldosteronism
Addison's
ACE inhibitors
immunosupressants
K+-sparing diuretics
chronic hyperkalemia

Low K+ foods: applesauce, green beans, cabbage, lettuce, peppers, grapes, blueberries, cooked summer squash, cooked turnip greens, pineapple, raspberries.
High Potassium Modified Diet
hypokalemia due to:
renal tubular acidosis
GI losses
diarrhea/vomiting
K+ wasting diuretics
antibiotics
mineral corticoid excess
glucocorticoid excess (aldosteronism, cushings, exogenous steroid use)
High Calcium Diet
during bone growth
in adulthood to prevent osteoporosis
facilitate vascular contraction
facilitate vasodilation
muscle contraction
nerve transmission

lactose intolerant should implement nondairy Ca+ in their diet
Low-Purine diet
gout
kidney stones
elevated uric acid levels

purine is a precursor for uric acid which forms stones and crystalize
High Purine Foods
anchovies
herring
mackerel
sardines
scallops
glandular meats
gravies
meat extracts
wild game
goose
sweet breads
High-Iron Diets
anemia
Vegetarian Diets
Ensure client eats a sufficient amount of varied foods to meet nutrient/energy needs.

educate about complementary proteins

potential deficiencies are:
energy
protein
vitamin B12
zinc
iron
calcium
omega-3 fatty acids
vitamin D

Common foods: tofu, tempeh, soy milk, soy products, meat analogues, legumes, nuts, seeds, sprouts, fruits/veggies

soy protein is considered equivalent to animal protein
Calculate BMI
mass in KG/height in meters squared
Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian
eat eggs and dairy
excludes meat, poultry and seafood
Lacto Vegetarian
consumes dairy
excludes eggs, meat, poultry and seafood
Vegan
excludes animal products
Pesco Vegitarian
consumes seafood
excludes meat, poultry, eggs and dairy
RDA Protein Men
56 g/day
RDA Protein Women
46 g/day
RDA Protein 1-18
13-52 g/day
Complimentary Proteins
Legumes with grains, nuts, seeds or dairy
Grains with dairy
Dairy with nuts
Dairy with nuts/seeds and legumes

Beans and rice or tortillas
PBJ
Mac n cheese
Tofu w/rice (or any grain)
hummus w/pita
grilled chees Sammy
yogurt w/nuts
noodle stir fry w/peanut or sesame seed sauce
lentil soup or dairy soup with bread
whole grain cereal w/milk
pizza
lasagna
bean tacos
Sources of Cellulose
apples
beans
bran
cabbage
Sources of Fructose
fruits
honey
sources of glucose
carrots
dates
grapes
oranges
sources of sucrose
apricots
granulated table sugar
honeydew/cantelope
molasses
peaches
peas and corn
plums