52 terms

Early middle Ages

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medieval
culture of the middle ages
Franks
conquered by Germanic tribes, farmers and herders
battle of Tours
732, Christian warriors triumphed. Muslims didn't advance in W Europe
Magyars
Nomadic people present day Hungary overran eastern Europe. parts of Eastern Europe
Vikings
Broke last threads of unity. Independent farmers rules by Chieftains . Expert sailors, destructive raiders, traders, explorers
Clovis
5th century Frankish leader of a large kingdom who converted to Christianity established Germanic kingdom
charles MArtel
rallied Frankish warriors when muslim army crossed into France
Charlemagne
united western Europe, fought Muslims in spain, unites Christian Europe, spread Christianity, revived Latin learning, created Latin schools
Describe Western Europe after the collapse of the western Roman Empire
They entered a period of political social and economic decline. It was politically divided, rural and largely cut off from advanced civilizations. Invaders swept across the region, trade slowed, towns emptied classical learning stopped
How did the Germanic tribes govern their kingdoms
There were no written laws and were governed by unwritten customs. Kings elected by tribal councils. Warriors swore loyalty to the king in exchange for weapons
How did Charlemagne unify Europe
Spread Christianity to conquered peoples. Appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions. Kept accurate records and clear reports. Revived latin learning and created schools.
What happened to Charlemagne's empire after he died
The empire split into 3 regions. There were new waves of invasions. Muslim forces conquered Sicily. Vikings broke the last threads of unity. They mixed with local populations
Why was Charlemagne important even after his death
He extended Christian civilization into northern Europe. He forced his conquered peoples to convert to Christianity. He furthered the blending of Germanic , Roman, and Christian traditions. He also set up strong efficient governments. He revived Latin learning and built schools. he also revived the glory of Rome at his court.
Why did Charlemagne's size enhance his image
A man with big size was special
feudalism
loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords
vassal
lesser lords
feudal contract
exchange of pledges
fief
estate
knight
mounted warrior
tournament
mock battles knights engaged in
chivalry
A code of conduct knights adopted
troubadour
wandering musicians
manor
lords estate
serf
peasants on a manor
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Leading face in European politics
What was the relationship between lords and vassals
it was based on the exchange of land for loyalty and military service. Lord gained his vassal a fief and would protect them. Vassals pledged loyalty to his lord and provide lord with 40 yrs of military service, money and advice
What were some drawbacks of using a castle for defense
They werent homes, they were fortresses, knights lived in the castles. Peasants would take refuge. Wars always centered on seizing castles
How was warfare central life in the middle ages
At 7, boys slated to become knights, were sent away to the castle of his father's lord. They learned to ride, fight keep their weapons and other armor in good shape
How did the manor serve the needs of the early Middle Ages
Peasants produced everything: Food, clothing, simple furniture and tools. They grew crops, had pastures for animals and meadow farming
Why was feudalism created
need for protection because of no central authority and land ownership, the most important value at this time
Land =
wealth
Rigid class system =
No social mobility -born into a class
peasants
largest group of feudal society
noble
vassal to king or independent
Feudalism triangles
King > appointed for protection and to handle territory > Lords > appointed to prpotect both Lord and King> Knights > Vassals > Serfs
Homage
Act when a vassal knelt and pledged to serve the lord. Lord gave vassal a fief and right to govern people on it
Fiefs could be granted by
the king or powerful lord
all lords were
nobles either inheriting their title or been created one by the king
sacrament
sacred rites of the Church
secular
wordly
papal supremacy
authority over all secular rulers including kings and emperors
canon law
Body of laws developed by the church and courts
excommunication
When you can't receive the sacraments or a Christian burial, which condemned you to hell
interdict
an order excluding an entire town, region or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and Christian burial
friar
monks who dont live in isolated monasteries
St Francis of Assi
Found the first order of friars , franciscans, devoted life topreaching and teaching by example
What role did the church play in the daily lives of medieval christians
Daily life revolved around the Christian calendar. main events in a persons life took place at church. Baptism was the entrance into the community marriages were performed on church steps, and the dead were buried in the churchyard
Describe monastic living according to Benedictine Rule
Monks and nun s vowed obidience to the abbot or abbess, poverty and purity. Each day was divided into periods for worship. work and study. Monks worked in fields or other physical tasks. Monks and nuns cleared and drained land and experimented with crops. Monks and nuns took care of the sick, wrote and taught Latin became missionaries
How did the church gain secular power
Popes claimed papal supremacy. The pope headed an army or church men who superivised church activities. Bishops were nobles and had territories and armies. Monasteries held large tracts of land which gave them economic and political power
How did monks contribute to the reform of the church
Abbot Berni revived the Benedictine Rule and refused to allow nobles to interfere in monastery affairs. Gregory v II limited secular influence on the church . He insisted that only the church chose church officials. he also outlawed marriage for priests
Why was the pope a powerful figure in Medieval Europe
he was a spiritual leader, claimed papal supremacy, and controlled all secular rulers. Popes also controled papal states which gave them economic and political power. They were representatives of God on Earth
tithe
10% tax from the church
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