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A cliche is

an overused expression.

Reversal of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence is called


Which of the following contains biased language?

he policeman is an underpaid professional who risks his life daily.

Bee lived in New Orleans her whole life and speaks Cajun with her family. The language she speaks would be considered

an ethnic vernacular

Written communication is different than oral communication for all of the following reasons, except:

Written communication is more varied than oral communication.

A speaker can use more pronouns in their speech because the oral style is much more ___ than the written style.


Of the following list, which word is the most abstract?


All of the following are gender-neutral terms, except:


The literal meaning of a word is called its


Marty grew up in a small town in Nebraska. She has always referred to ground beef sandwiches in sauce as "loose meat," but when she went to college she noticed everyone else called them "sloppy joes." "Loose meat" is an example of

a regionalism.

When Franklin Roosevelt said, "Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep" he was using


The specialized language of a profession is called


A simile is

a comparison between two things that uses the word like or as

Opposition, such as that used in two part sentences in which the second part contrasts in meaning with the first is called


An implied comparison between two things or concepts is called


n her opening day remarks, Michelle's teacher said that the fall leaves were whispering a welcome to the students in her class. What figure of speech was she using?


When Nelson Mendela said the poor are "trapped in the prison of poverty" what figure of speech was he using?


When Ralph Waldo Emerson said "We will walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak our own minds," what language rhythm was he using?


Jargon is

the specialized language of a profession.

The linguistic theory that holds that the more concrete your words, the clearer your communication is

general semantics

Trudy speaks "Spanglish" with her friends. Spanglish is an example of

an ethnic vernacular.

Select the phrase that uses biased language

The male kindergarten teacher did a good job leading his class.

When Barbara hears the word "quilt," she thinks of her grandmother who loved to make quilts for her. In Barbara's mind the word quilt has taken on a ____ associated with her grandmother.


Brett is trying to decide if the speech he is listening to is done in the oral or written style. Which of the following characteristics will be the give-away that the speech is done in the written style?

The speaker uses formal language and structure.

Paul looks up a word in a dictionary. The literal meaning of the word that he finds here is called its


The English taught by schools and used in the media, business, and government in the United States is called

standard U.S. english

Marvin has good ideas and supporting material for his speech but he needs to create some drama. What technique below is recommended for creating drama?

Use short sentences to express a vitally important thought.

"At the end of the day" and "At this moment in time" are examples of phrases that have become overused, called


A speaker says, "So, I urge all of you to write to your Congressman." What is wrong with this statement?

It includes sexist language.

Alliteration is

the repetition of a consonant sound (usually the first consonant) several times in a phrase, clause or sentence.

An advantage of manuscript speaking is

that the language can be beautifully refined, polished, and stylized.

Barb decides to start the Q and A section of her speech by asking the first question. Is this a good tactic?


A lawyer leaving a Chicago courthouse refuse to answer a reporter's questions about the case. She holds up her hands to augment her verbal refusal. What function is her gesture serving in this instance?


When adapting your speech for television, it is a good idea to

keep it short

When rehearsing your speech, all of the following are good tips, except:

Rehearse your speech sitting down so you can make any notes and changes.

When Juan says, "I have two responses. First...," he is using

organizational signposts

Patrick's roommate tells him he needs to work on his ethnocentrism. What does he mean?

Patrick assumes that his own cultural approaches are superior to those of other cultures.

Chris' literature professor asks someone to stand up and give a brief summary of the themes in Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass. What type of speaking is Chris doing when he stands up to answer the question?


According to emotional contagion theory, if you want your audience to feel a certain way it is best to

express that emotion yourself

Articulation is defined as

he production of clear and distinct speech sounds.

When responding to questions, it is best to

be brief

According to the nonverbal expectancy theory,

audiences have certain expectations about how a speech will be delivered.

Cara is giving a speech in her class. It is evident that she is well-prepared and her eye-contact with the audience is excellent. However, she comes across as stiff and stilted and when someone asks her a question, she is left standing there awkwardly, searching for words. What type of speaking did Cara prepare for?


One study showed that audience members who had more than _____% eye contact with their speaker performed better in post speech tests than did those who had less than _____% eye contact.


All of the following are part of your nonverbal communication, except:

the words you use

After a controversial presentation, an audience member asks a hostile question. All of the following are good suggestions for the speaker to use to handle the situation, except:

Try to change the subject subtly.

All of the following are good tips for rehearsing before a speech, except:

write your final draft of your speech the night before

Strategies for adapting both verbal and nonverbal messages for a culturally diverse audience include

consult with other speakers who have presented to your audience.

The term "speaking off the cuff" relates to _____ speaking


TV producers use a laugh track on their situation comedies based on what they have learned from which of the following theories?

emotional contagion theory

A dialect is

a consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region.

Maggie knows the major ideas she wants to express and has outlined them, but has not memorized the exact wording of her speech. What type of speaking will she be doing?

extemporaneous speaking.

Nonverbal expectancy theory is

a communication theory that suggests that if listeners' expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message.

When responding to questions, it is a good idea to

be brief and admit it when you dont know the answer

Heath has a habit of impatiently adjusting his glasses when he speaks. This is an example of

nonverbal communication

In interpersonal contexts, people from _____ cultures expect less direct eye contact when communicating with others than do North Americans.


Impromptu speaking is

delivering a speech without preparing in advance.

During a question and answer session, your delivery method changes to


A speaker who holds up three fingers while saying "I have three things to say" is using his gestures for what function?


All of the following are good tips for adapting your speech for television, except:

amplify your facial expressions

When it comes to using presentation aids, all of the following are true, except:

it is best to try to put all your words on one visual, rather than to split up the idea.

Joanne wants to use handouts as a part of her presentation. All of the following are good tips for her to consider, except:

Only place material designed to be used as handouts on an overhead projector.

Beatrice is trying to decide what typeface to use for a handout that is part of her presentation that contains a large block of text. What font will work best?


Tom is skilled at bringing images into his speeches to help him to achieve his goals. He is skilled at

visual rhetoric

The single most important principle for using presentation aids in public speaking is

make it big

A pie graph is

a circular graph divided into wedges that show the distribution of data.

Researchers estimate that you remember _____% of what you read.


If your speech seems to call for a dangerous or illegal object or substance as a presentation aid, it is best to

substitute a picture or chart or other representational device.

It has been estimated that __% of all information comes to us through sight.


Leann wants to use color in her PowerPoint presentation to catch her audience's attention. Which of the following combinations will work best?

a dark background with lighter text

James' teacher asks him to use a three dimensional presentation aid in his presentation. Which of the following would be most appropriate?

a model

Which of the following is an example of a poor use of visuals?

keeping the projector on at all times when using overhead transparencies .

In order to be truly effective, a speaker should use no more than how many lines of text on a single PowerPoint slide?


Ted puts a chart up during his speech and says "here are the most recent statistics on automobile injury and death rates in the United States. " He then goes on to make a point about why new safety features in cars need to be made standard. What was Ted's mistake?

He did not explain and interpret the data, setting the visual in a verbal context.

To use presentation aids for maximum audience impact you should

make eye contact with your audience, not with your presentation aids.

Researchers estimate that you remember _____% of what you hear.


Presentation aids can

help listeners organize ideas,help illustrate a sequence of procedures,help your audience understand and remember your message

Rachel wants to use a photograph from her trip to Fiji as a presentation aid in her speech. Which of the following tips should she remember?

Have the photo blown up to poster size.

To use presentation aids for maximum audience impact you should

explain your presentation aids.

An example of a two-dimensional presentation aid would be a(n)


A graph that uses images to symbolize data is called a

picture graph

According to the text, the most important suggestion for any visual aid that speakers often forget is to

make it big

Flipcharts are best used when

you have brief information to display or you want to display comments from the audience members

Will's presentation aid is too small for everyone in his class of 75 people to see, but he still wants to use it. What should he do?

Invite members of the audience to come up and see it after his speech is over.

Fiona has a collection of miniature dolls that she thinks will make a great presentation aid for her speech to 125 classmates about hobbies. What suggestion for selecting the right presentation aid will Fiona violate if she chooses to use these dolls?

consider your audience

You should only distribute handouts to your audience while you are speaking if

your listeners need to refer to the material while you're talking about it.

According to the text, this type of presentation aid will communicate the best with today's audiences:


Connie says she was impressed by the visual rhetoric of a speech she just heard. What impressed her?

The way the speaker integrated images seamlessly into the message

Beth wants to show the overall graduation rate increase trend in the United States over the past 1000 years. What type of graph will work best?

line graph

Effective PowerPoint visuals

use bullets in parallel structure.

Jason is preparing a speech about a major event in U.S. History. When deciding how to organize his speech, he should take into consideration that most speeches about events are organized


The art and science of teaching children to learn is called


Pausing and gesturing are strategies that speakers can use to

reinforce key ideas nonverbally

A speaker who addresses an audience of senior citizens and talks about the latest in MP3 technology may have trouble maintaining the audience's interest because she forgot to

present information that relates to her listeners.

A technique that can capture an audience's attention and create a "mini-mystery" is to

ask a rhetorical question

Gestures serve the purpose of accenting or emphasizing key phrases, as ____ do/does in written communication.

italic type

A good story has all of the following elements, except:

an ending that leaves some loose ends

In an informative speech about a trip to Hawaii, Tom described for his audience the warm sand beneath his feet, the roar of the Pacific Ocean, and the pungent smell of hibiscus flowers. What was Tom attempting to do?

help his listeners form a mental image,use word pictures,appeal to his listeners' senses of touch, hearing, and smell

The key to delivering a good biographical speech is to

be selective

A good strategy to maintain audience interest is to

establish a motive for your audience to listen to you

To enhance audience recall you should

reinforce key ideas verbally,build in redundancy,reinforce key ideas nonverbally

A speech about procedures

reviews how something works or describes a process.

Andragogy is the art and science of

teaching adults

Maria is giving a speech about Mount Rushmore. She wants to describe the physical layout of the mountain and the surrounding areas and the way in which Mount Rushmore was constructed. What organizational structure will work best for her speech?


If a speaker said "If the Milky Way is as big as North America, our solar system would fit inside a coffee cup," she is using a(n)



reversing the normal word order of a phrase or sentence


use of the same grammatically patter for two or more phases, clauses, or sentences


oppositions, such as that used in two part sentences in which the second part contrasts in meaning with the first


boils an idea down to its essence by leaving out understood words

noverbal expectancy theory

a communication theory that suggests that if listeners expectation about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message

emotional contagion theory

a theory suggesting that people tend to "catch" the emotions of others

extemporaneous speaking

speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having memorized the exact wording of the speech

immediacy behaviors

behaviors such as making eye contact, making appropriate gestures, and adjusting physical distance that enhance the quality of the relationship between speaker and listeners


the variation in the pitch of the voice

lavaliere microphone

a microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing or worn on a cord around your neck


the art and science of teaching children


the art and science of teaching adults

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