Forensic Science Chapter 7 Vocabulary

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allele
an alternete form of a gene, for example, a gene for human hair color may have ______ that cause red or brown hair.
chromosome
a cell structure that contains genetic information along strand of DNA.
DNA fingerprint
pattern of DNA fragments obtained by examining a person's unique sequence of DNA base pairs.
DNA probe
A molecule labeled with a radioactive isotope, dye, or enzyme that is used to locate a particular sequence or gene on a DNA molecule.
electrophoresis
A method of separating molecules, such as DNA, according to their size and electrical charge using an electric current passed through a gel containing the samples.
gene
Segment of DNA in a chromosome that contains information used to produce proteins or an RNA molecule.
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
A method used to rapidly make multiple copies of a specific segments of DNA; can be used to make millions of copies of DNA from very small amount of DNA.
restriction enzyme
A molecule that cuts a DNA molecule at a specific, base sequence.
STR (short tandem repeat)
Tandem (next to each other) repeats of short DNA sequences (two or five base pairs) with varying numbers of repeats found among individuals.
VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats)
Tandem (next to each other) repeats of a short DNA sequence (9 to 80 base pairs) with varying numbers of reacting among individuals.