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medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings


an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind


Name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior

levels of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being


a branch of medicine that deals with psychological disorders

william james

founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment

Edward Bradford Titchner

aimed to discover the structural elements his method was to engage in self-reflective introspection (looking inward)


a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt and survive

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