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Defines form and space.

Horizontal lines

Create width in a hair design. They extend in the same direction and maintain a constant distance apart from the floor or horizon.

Vertical lines

Create length and height in hair design. Makes a hair style appear longer and narrower as the eye follows the lines up and down.

Diagonal lines

Positioned between horizontal and vertical lines.

Curved lines

Lines moving in a circular or semi-circular direction, soften a design.

Single lines

One-length hairstyle

Parallel lines

Repeating lines in a hairstyle, can be straight or curved.

Contrasting lines

Horizontal and Vertical lines that meet at a 90 degree angle.

Transitional lines

Usually curver lines that are used to blend and soften horizontal or vertical lines.


The mass or general outline of a hairstyle. It is three-dimensional and has length, width, and depth.


The area surrounding the form or the area the hairstyle occupies.


An important role in hair design, both visually and psychologically.


The comparative relationship of one thing to another.


Establishing equal or appropriate proportions to create symmetry. Can be either Symmetrical or Asymmetrical.

Symmetrical balance

When an imaginary line is drawn through the center of the face and the two resulting halves form a mirror image of one another.

Asymmetrical Balance

When the two imaginary halves of a hairstyle have an equal visual weight, but are positioned unevenly.


Regular pulsation or recurrent pattern of movement in a design.


Also known as "focus", what draws the eye first before it travels to the rest of the design. (Wave Patterns, Color, Change in form, Ornamentation)


Creation of unity in a design and is the most important of the art principles.


About one and a half times longer than it's width across the brow. Can wear any hairstyle.


Round hairline, and round chin line, wide face.

Square face

Wide at the temples, narrow at the middle third of the face, and squared of at the jaw.


Narrow forehead, wide jaw and chin line.


Long, narrow face with hollow cheeks.


Narrow forehead, extreme width through the cheekbones, and narrow chin.

Inverted Triangle

Wide forehead and narrow chin line.


The outline of the face, head or figure seen in a side view.

Straight Profile

Considered the ideal profile.


Receding forehead and chin.


Prominent forehead and chin, with other features receded inward.

Bang Area

Begins at the Apex and ends at the front corners.

Triangular part

Basic parting for bang sections.

Diagonal part

Gives height to a round or square face and width to a long thin face.

Curved part

Used for receding hairline or high forehead.

Center part

Used for oval face, but can also give an oval illusion to wide and round faces.

Side part

Used to direct hair across the top of the head. They help develop height on top and make thin hair appear fuller.

Diagonal part

Used to create the illusion of width or height in a hairstyle.

Zigzag part

Creates a dramatic effect.

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