PSYC 315 (Attitudes and Persuasion)
Terms in this set (70)
Evaluations of people, objects, and ideas
Where do attitudes come from?
Genes and experience
Three Components of Attitudes
Cognitive component: thought to beliefs that people form about the attitude object
Affective component: peoples emotional reactions towards the attitude object
Behavioral component: how people act toward the attitude object
Cognitively based attitude
An attitude based primarily on peoples beliefs about the properties of an attitude object
Affectively based attitude
An attitude based more on peoples feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object
The phenomena whereby a stimulus the elicits an emotional response is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus that does not until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus
The phenomena whereby behaviors were freely choose to perform become more or less frequent, depending on whether they are followed by a reward or punishment
Behaviorally based attitude
An attitude based on observations go how one behaves toward an object
Self-perception theory (Daryl Bem)
Under certain circumstances people don't know how they feel until they see how they behave
Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report
ex: whats your opinion on affirmation action?
Attitudes that exist outside of conscious awareness
Implicit attitudes are rooted more in ____, where as explicit attitudes are rooted more in their _____
Peoples childhood experiences, recent experiences
The strength of the association between an attitude object and a persons evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object
Theory of planned behavior
The idea that peoples intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behavioral, which are determined but heir attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
What makes attitudes accessible in the first place?
the degree of experience people have behaving with the attitude object
A message advocating a particular side of an issue
Yale attitude change approach
The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on the source of the communication, the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience
Elaboration likelihood model
A model explaining two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arrangements in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics
Central route to persuasion
The case in which people have both the ability and the motivation to elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments presented
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
The case in which people do not elaborate on arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by more superficial cues
When an issue is personally relevant...
People pay attention to the arguments in a speed and will be persuaded to the extent that the arguments are sound (Central route to persuasion- only if the arguments are compelling)
When an issue is not personally relevant...
People pay less attention to the argument (Peripheral route to persuasion - such as the length of communication, or the attributes of the communicator)
Persuasive message that attempts to change peoples attitudes by arousing their fears
An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: either systematically processing the merits of the argument or using mental shortcuts or heuristics
Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence judgments, attitudes, and behaviors
Societal beliefs- such as those conveyed by media and other sources- regarding how men and women are expected to behave
Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
The idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of resistance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the prohibited behavior
Peoples emotional reaction to a target is referred to as the _____ component of attitudes
Which component of an attitude is most related to the process of examining facts and weighing the objective merits of a target?
Adults tendency to experience happy, nostalgia-filled feelings when they hear the music of an ice cream truck can be best explained by the relationship of attitudes to
Newman is currently overweight, but as a child he was quite thin. His current explicit attitude toward the overweight is likely to be more ___ and his current implicit attitude toward the overweight is likely to be more ____
The major finding of LaPiere's classic study on attitudes and behavior involving prejudice and hotel/restaurant owners is that
Peoples attitudes are not always reliable predictors of their behavior
Attitude accessibility is a particularly good predictor of behavior when...
the behavior in question is spontaneous
What is an example of a deliberate behavior?
Making a decision regarding where you want to travel over your next vacation break
Wendy is a member of a political group on your campus and is interested in finding out how many students plan to vote in the next presidential election. According to the theory of planned behavior, what would be a good attitude question would be the best predictor of whether or not a particular student will vote in the next election?
What are your attitudes about voting in the next US presidential election?
In trying to predict deliberative behaviors, what three considerations must we evaluate?
Attitude specificity, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control
One way to change someones attitude is to get that person to give a speech arguing against his or her actual viewpoint. The strategy can lead to attitude change through cognitive dissonance as long as ____ is/are present
Insufficient justification for making the speech
What is a factor that is not considered by the Yale Attitude Change approach?
The physical attractiveness of the source of a persuasion communication would be best described as?
Fear-arousing persuasive communication is most likely to be effective when
a plan for reducing the fear is provided
Brinol and Petty conducted a study in which participants tried on headphones while listening to a persuasive editorial. Half the participants shook their head side-to-side while listening and the other half nodded up and down while listening. Which group of participants expressed the greatest agreement with the arguments expressed in the editorial at the end of the study?
The head-nodders who head strong arguments in the editorial
Research on public service ads designed to promote healthy behavior indicates that such efforts
are more effective via television than print ads when their target is young people
The best way for an advertisement to change an affectively based attitude is to use a _____ appeal
Research on subliminal influence in advertising demonstrates that subliminal efforts at persuasion are
Less effective than people assume them to be
Women who are randomly assigned to look at media depictions of thin women
experience a decrease in body self-image
What is true about cross-cultural comparisons of advertising?
Korean ads are more likely than American ads to focus on family and concerns for others
The concept of attitude inoculation indicated that we are better able to resist a later attempt to change our attitudes when we are first exposed to arguments that
are weakened versions of arguments we might hear later
What is the best explanation for why product placement can be effective at changing attitudes?
The audience is often aware that an effort at attitude change is occurring
Peer pressure effects tend to be linked most often to what type of attitude?
Affectively based attitudes
What concept relates to the ironic research finding that the stronger the warning against a certain attitude or behavior, the more people sometimes wish to exhibit it?
Alert us to rewards and punishments in the environment
some attitudes allow us to protect our self-esteem
Cognitive and emotional elements motivate behavioral element, but the correspondence between the behavioral elements and the other two is not always so close (T/F)
Operate as part of our schemas;guide our attention, learning and recall
Join groups, and express the same attitude
Motivation to pursue the central route
Is issue personally relevant
Knowledge of domain
Personally responsible for some sort of action
Need for cognition
Motivation to pursue the peripheral route
Issue is not personally relevant
Distracted or fatigued
Message incomplete or hard to comprehend
Successful copers of Taylor's Breast Cancer Study
-Development beliefs about why cancer occurred- combats sense of randomness
-Developed beliefs about positive consequences of the experience of cancer
-Developed beliefs about mastery; how to control cancer
-Regained lost sense of self-esteem
Dissonance and attitude change: change ___ attitudes
Who says what to whom and persuasion:
characteristics of the communicator, the message, ad the recipient of the message
A high quality message conveys a novel and desirable reason for taking the action the communicator wasn't the recipient to take
High quality messages
-Appeal to the core values of recipients
-Are clear, straightforward, and logical
-Make their conclusion explicit
-Explicit refute the opposition
Messages are more persuasive if you argue against your own interests (T/F)
Identifiable victim effect
Messages are more persuasive if they contain vivid stories about real people than statistics or other "cold" facts and figures.
Work best in the eastern part of the world (asian countries)
Work best in the western part of the world (US, Europe_
Message recipient characteristics
Need for cognition- quality of arguments are critical
Mood- good more persuasion
Age- young and old
IQ- middle IQ most easily persuaded; high and low cause problems
Message source characteristics
Fame, celebrity, attractiveness (peripheral route)
Credibility (expertise and trustworthiness), relevant in all cases, but particularly relevant to person proceeding down the peripheral route
Heavy TV viewers
-Estimate more crime
-Assume women have lower abilities than men
-Think there are more doctors and lawyers in the US than there are
-Express more racially prejudice ideas