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64 terms

Anatomy Ch. 6

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Trabecula
A connective tissue partition that subdivides an organ
Ischium
One of three bones who fusion creates the coxa
External Acoustic Canal
Passageway in the temporal bone that leads to the tympanum
Forearm
Distal portion of the arm between the elbow and wrist
Cribriform Plate
Portion of the ethmoid bone of the skull that contains the foramnia used by the axons of the olfactory receptors en route to olfactory bulbs of the cerebrum
Estrogens
A class of steroid sex hormones that includes estradiol
Meniscus
A fibrocartilage pad between opposing surfaces in a joint
Carpus/Carpal
the wrist
Elevation
movement in a superior, or upward direction
Tendon
A collagenous band that connects skeletal muscle to an element of the skeleton
Eversion
a turning outward
Periosteum
layer that surrounds a bone, consisting of an outer fibrous and inner cellular region
Auditory ossicles
The bones of the inner ear: malleus, incus, and stapes
Coccyx
terminal portion of the spinal column, consisting of relatively tiny, fused vertebrae
Capitulum
A small, elevated articular process; used to refer to the rounded distal surface of the humerous that articulates
Osteoclast
a cell that dissolves the fibers and matrix of bone
Spinous Process
Prominent posterior projection of a vertebra, formed by the fusion of two laminae
Symphysis
A fibrous aphiarthrosis, such as that between adjacent vertebrae or between the pubic bones of the coxae
Arthritis
inflammation of a joint
Tubercle
A small localized elevation on a bony surface
Endochondral Ossification
The conversion of a cartilaginous model to bone; the characteristic mode of formation for skeletal elements other than the bones of the cranium, the clavicles, and sesamoid bones
Ilium
The largest of the three bones whose fusion creates a coxa
Os Coxae/ossa coxae
a bone of the hip; formed by the fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis
Fracture
a break or crack in the bone
Pubic Symphysis
Fibrocartilaginous amphiarthrosis between the pubic bones of the ossa coxae
Dorsiflexion
Elevation of the superior surface of the foot
Osteocyte
a bone cell responsible for the maintenance and turnover of the mineral content of the surrounding bone
Amphiarthrosis
an articulation that permits a small amount of movement
Abduction
movement away from the midline
Calcaneus
the heelbone, largest of the tarsal bones
Fossa
shallow depression or furrow in the surface of a bone
Glenoid fossa
rounded depression that forms the articular surface of the scalpula at the shoulder joint
Calcaneal tendon
large tendon the inserts on the calcaneus; tension on this tendon produces plantar flexion of the foot; also called the Achilles tendon
Coracoid Process
a hook-shaped process of the scalpula that projects above the anterior surface of the capsule of the shoulder joint
Pedicles
thick bony struts that connect the vertebral body with the articular and spinous processes
Sole
inferior surface of the foot
Calcitonin
hormone secreted by C cells of the thyroid when calcium ion concentrations are abnormally high; restores homeostasis by increasing rate of bone deposition and renal rate of calcium loss at the kidneys
Marrow
tissue that fills internal cavities in bones; may be dominated by hemopoietic cells (red marrow) or adipose tissue (yellow marrow)
Pubis
the anterior, inferior component of the os coxae
Depression
inferior (downward) movement of a body part
epiphysis
head of a long bone
Metatarsal
one of the five bones of the foot that articulate with the tarsals (proximally) and the phalanges (distally)
Hard palate
the bony roof of the oral cavity, formed by maxillary and palantine bones
inversion
a turning inward
Tuberosity
a large, roughened elevation on a bony surface
Condyle
a rounded articular projection on the surface of the bone
Fontanel
a relatively soft, felxible, fibrous region between two flat bones in the developing skull
Flexion
movement that reduces the angle between two articulating bones; the opposite of extension
Bursa
small sac filled with synovial fluid that cushions adjacent structures and reduces friction
Supination
rotation of the forearm such that the palm faces anteriorly
Cancellous bone
spongy bone, composed of a network of bony struts
Phalanx/Phalanges
bone of the finger or toes
White blood cells
Leukocytes; the granulocytes and agranulocytes of the blood
Trunk
the thoracic and abdominopelvic regions
Osteon
basic histological unit of compact bone, consisting of osteocytes organized around a central canal and seperated by concentric lamellae
Appositional growth
enlargement of a bone by the addition of cartilarge or bony matrix at its surface
Circumduction
a movement at a synovial joint where the distal end of the bone describes a circle but the shaft does not rotate
Contractility
ability to contract, possesed by skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle cells
Joint capsule
dense collagen fiber fiber sleeve that surrounds a joint and provides protection and stabilization
Process
a projection or bump of the skeleton
Growth Hormone
anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates tissu egrowth and anabolism when nutrients are abundant and restricts tissue glucose dependence when nutrients are in short supply
Fibula
the lateral, relatively small leg bone
Sulcus
a groove or furrow
Vertebral Canal
Passageway that encloses the spinal cord, a tunnel bounded by vertebral arches of adjacent vertebrae