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developed countries

Countries with strong economies and a high quality of life

developing countries

Countries with less productive economies and a lower quality of life


growth to a global or worldwide scale


Being able to continue to operate, survive, and adjust to significant changes.

natural capital

the natural resources and natural services that keep us and other species alive and support out economies

rule of 70

Doubling time (in years) = 70/(percentage growth rate). See doubling time, exponential growth.

economic growth

increase in capacity to provide goods

economic development

The improvement of living standards by economic growth.

perpetual resources

On a human time scale it is renewed continuously; ex: the sun

sustainable yield

Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply


Human-induced changes on the natural environment

enviromental degradation

Damage to or destruction of the natural enviroment

per capita

per person

point source pollution

single source pollution

nonpoint source pollution

pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site

ecological footprint

The amount of biologically productive land and water needed to support a person or population.

tragedy of the commons

situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community

aldo leopold

protect nature

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