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148 terms

business informations systems test 2

chapters 6/9/10.1/11
STUDY
PLAY
Information granularity
refers to the extent of detail within the information.
transactional information
encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks.
analytical information
encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks.
real time information
this means immediate, up to date information.
real time systems
provide real-time information in response to query requests.
hierachical database model
here information is organised into a tree like model that allows repeating of information.
network database model
a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships.
rational database model
database that store information in the form of logically related two dimensional tables.
entity
the relational database model is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.
attributes
these are characteristics of an entity class.
primary key
is a field that uniquely identifies a given entity in a trade.
foreign key
the relational database model is a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables.
physical view
of information deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device such as a hard disk.
logical view
focuses on now users logically access information to meet their particular business needs.
scalability
this refers to how well a system can adapt to increaseed demands.
performance
measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction.
redundancy
is the duplication of information or storage the same information in multiple places.
information integrity
is a measure of quality of information.
integrity constraints
are rules that help ensure the quality of informationa.
relational integrity constraints
are rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints.
business-critical integrity constraints
enforce business rules vital to an organizations success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints.
database management systems
is softward through which users and application programs interact with a database
data-driven website
is an interactive website kept constantly unpdated and relevant to the needs of its customers through the use of the data base.
integration
allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other.
forward integration
takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes.
backward integration
takes informational entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
data warehouse
is a logical collection of information, gathered from many different operational databases that supports businessanalysis activities and decision making tasks.
extraction transformation
a process that extracts information from intelectual and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprize definitions and loads the information into the data warehouse.
cube
this is a common term for representation of mutlidimensional information
information cleansing or scrubbing
this is a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incompleat information.
data mining
this is the process of analysing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
customer reltionship management (CRM)
this involves managing all aspects of a customers relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and organizations profitability.
reporting technologies
help organizations identify their customers across other applications.
analysis technologies
help organizations identify their customers into categories such as best and worst customers.
predicting technologies
help organizations make predictions regarding customer behavior such as
operational CRM
supports traditional processing for day to day office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers.
analytical CRM
supports back office operations and stategic analysis and includes all systems that do not directly deal the customers.
List generators
compile customer information froma variety of sources and segment information for different marketing campaign.
campaign management systems
guide uses through marketing campaigns performing such tasks as campaingn defintition planning, scheduling, segmentation and success analysis.
cross selling
is selling additional products to a customer
up selling
is increasing the value of the sale
sales force automation
this is a system that automatically tracks all of the steps in the sales process.
sales management CRM systems
automate each phase of the sales process helping individual sales representatives coordinate their accounts.
contact management CRM systems
maintains customer contact information and identifys prospective customers for future sales.
opportunity management CRM systems
target sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales.
a contact center
where customer service representatives answer customer inquiries.
web based self service
allows customers to use the web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems.
call scripting systems
access organizational databases that track similar issues.
personalization
occurs when a website can know enough about a persons likes that they offer more entising products.
SRM
focuses by keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing supppliers for different products.
PRM
focuses on keeping vendors satisfied by managing alliance partner and reseller relationships that provide customers with the optimal sales channel.
ERM
provides employees with a subset of CRM applications avliavle through a web browser.
business information systems
refers to applilcations and technologies that are used to gather, provide access to, and analyze data and information to support decision making efforts.
data mining
process of analysing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
data mining tools
use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information.
cluster analysis
is a technque used to devide an information set into mutally exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible.
association detection
reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the information.
market basket analysis
aqnalyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner information to detect customers buying behavior.
statistical analysis
performs such functions as info correlations distributions calculations and various analysis.
forecasts
made on the basis of time series information.
time series information
is time stamped info collected at a particular frequency.
single point of access to information for users
with a BI solution, organizations can unlock information heldwithin theri databases by giving authorized users a singlepoint of access to data.
bi access across organization departments
the greatest benefit is that it can be used at every stop in the calue chain.
quantifiable benefits
these include benefits working time saved in producing reports, selling information to suppliers and so on.
indireclty quantifiable benefits
this can be evaluated though indirect evidence such as improved customer service.
unpredictable benefits
are the result of discoveries made by creative users.
intangible benefits
include improved communication thoughout the enterprise, improved job satisfaction of empowered users, and improved knowledge sharing.
operations management
predicting machinery failures; finding key factors that control optimization of manufacturing capacity.
brokerage and securities trading
predicting when bond prices will change; forecasting the range of stock fluctuations for particular issues and the overall market.
marketing
classifying customer demographics that can be used to predict which customers will respond to a mailing or buy a particular product.
enteprise resource planning (ERP)
integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (better decisions can be made).
Core ERP compenents
are the traditional compenents included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations.
Extended components ERP
are the extra components that meet the organizational needs covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations.
Accounting and finance components ERP
manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payble, accounts receivable
productiong and materials management components ERP
handle the various aspects of production planning such as productiong scheduling.
human resources components ERP
track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, and performance assessment.
extended components ERP
the extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core compenents.
supply chain management (SCM)
involves the management of information flows between and amoung stages to maximise effectiveness and profitability.
ebusiness
means conducting business on internet, not only buying and selling but also serving customers.
elogistics
this manages the transportation and storage of goods.
eprocurement
this is the business to business (B2B) purchase and sale or supplies and services over the internet.
middleware
this is several different types of softward that sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software apllicationss.
Enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware
this represents a new approach to middleware by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications.
balanced scorecard
this is a management systtem, in addition to a measurement system, that enables organization to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action.
overall fit
refers to the degree of gaps that exist between the system and the business process.
proper business analysis
the best way to determine which fit stategy is right to conduct a thorough business analysis.
solid implementation plans
a plans is needed to monitor the quality objectives and timelines.
systems development life cycle (SDLC)
this is the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenence
planning phase
involves establishing a high level plan of the intended project.
analysis phase
involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refinning project goals into definned functions and operations of the intended system.
business requirements
are the detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful.
design phase
involves describing the desired features and the operations of the system including screen layouts.
development phase
involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
testing phase
involves bringing the project pieces together into a special testing enviroment to test for errors and bugs.
implementation phase
involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations witth the system
maintenance phase
involves performing changes, corrections to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals.
methodology
this is a set of policies, procudures and standards.
waterfall methodology
this is an activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance
iterative development
this consists of a series of tiny projects
agile mathodology
aims for the customer satisfaction through early continous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process.
rapid application development (RAD) methodology
emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems developemnt process.
protype
smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirements or a proposed design for an information system.
extreme programming (XP) methodology
like other agile methods, breaks a project into tiny phrases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase untill the first pahse is complete.
project stakeholders
individuals involved in the project whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution.
smart
specific/measurable/agreed upon/realistic/time framed
project charter
the document issued by the project initiator, formally authorizing the existance of a project.
project plan
(by a business person) a formal (understandable) approved document that manages and controls project execution. it needs to be team based and therigth size for your business.
kill switch
a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project prior to compeltion.
program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
this is a graphical network model that depicts project's tasks and the relationships between those tasks.
dependency
the logical relationship between a project task and a milestone.
critical path
a path from start to finish, compleating the project in the shortest amount of time.
Gantt chart
this is a simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calander.
project manager
an individual who is an expert in project planning
change management
a set of techniques that aid in evolution, composition, and policy management.
change control board (ccb)
that is responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests.
insourcing
in house development
outsourcing
this is where a company offers services for another company and does not perform those services in house.
onshore outsourcing
engaging another company within the same country for services
nearshore outsourcing
contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company from a nearby country.
offshore outsourcing
using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems.
financial savings
typically cheaper to hire workers in china and india
rapid growth
by taking advantage of outsourcing, an organization is able to acquire best-practice process expertise
the internet
the pervasive nature of the internet as an effective sales channel has allowed clients to become more comfortable with outsourcing
globalization
as markets open worldwide, competition heats up.
contract legth problem
difficulty of getting out of a contract, problems in foreseeing resources needed, problems reforming intenal IT contact.
competitive edge
effective and innovative use of IT can give an organization a _________ over it's rivals.
confidentiality
some companies decide against outsourcing due to secret information getting into the hands of the provider.
scope definition
most organizations suffer from problems associate with the ________ system.
Which of the following represents the different information formats?
Detail, summary, aggregate
What in the relational database model is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored?
Entity
All of the following are advantages of database-stored information, except:
Increased information redundancy
What measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction?
Performance
What are the rules that help ensure the quality of information?
Integrity constraints
how does CRM allow a business to perform better
Help sales staff close deals faster, Make call centers more efficient and Provide better customer service.
What helps an organization identify its customers across applications?
Reporting
Which of the following operational CRM technologies does the marketing department typically use?
List generator, campaign management, cross-selling and up-selling
What targets sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales?
Opportunity management systems
What allows customers to use the web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems?
Web-based self-service
What focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects, which optimizes supplier selection?
Supplier relationship management
Which of the following is one of the CRM business drivers?
Automation/productivity/efficiency, Increase revenues and Inventory control
What activities do production and materials management components perform?
Handle the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control.
Which extended ERP component collects information used throughout an organization, organizes it, and applies analytical tools to assist managers with decisions?
Business intelligence
What are several different types of software, which sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software applications?
Middleware
What represents a new approach to middleware by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications, which reduces the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors?
Enterprise application integration middleware
What is an IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of information?
Collaboration system
What provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment?
Content management system
outsourcing beenfits
cost
outsourcing challanges
contract length, competitive edge, confidentiality and scope definition.