18 terms

Landmark Cases

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Brown v. Board of Education
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" schools was unconstitutional
Equal Protection Clause
the section of the Fourteenth Amendment that says that states must apply the law equally and cannot discriminate against citizens or groups of citizens
Gideon v. Wainwright
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the Sixth Amendment right that all defendants must be appointed a lawyer if they cannot afford their own attorney
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that freedom of the press can be limited in schools if if it disrupts the learning environment
In re Gault
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that juveniles are entitled to equal protection and due process in courts
Plessy v. Ferguson
U.S. Supreme Court case that ALLOWED "separate but equal" segregation
segregation
the separation of people by race, gender, etc.
no self-incrimination
the right in the Fifth Amendment that protects a person from being forced to reveal info to the police or court
separate but equal
Idea that having separate facilities for African-Americans and white people was legal as long as the facilities were equal
Tinker v. Des Moines
U.S. Supreme Court case concerning Vietnam armbands; the court ruled that students' have the right to free speech as long as it doesn't disrupt the learning environment
unconstitutional
not in agreement with the U.S Constitution
United States v. Nixon
U.S. Supreme Court case that ruled that the rule of law applied to all including the president
civil rights
the basic rights of citizens to be free from discrimination based on race, gender, disability, etc.
due process
the right of people accused of crimes to have laws that treat them fairly, so that they cannot lose their life or freedom without having their legal rights protected
judicial review
the power of the judicial branch to review the actions of the executive and legislative branches and determine whether or not they are unconstitutional; Established by Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison
U.S. Supreme Court case that established judicial review
Miranda v. Arizona
U.S. Supreme Court case that led to all people being read their rights before taken into police custody--You have the right to remain silent...
precedent
a court decision in an earlier case used to help decide a current case before a court