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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Chapter 1: The Renaissance: 1350-1550
Terms in this set (59)
The 16th century, a period of the Italian Renaissance, including italian art, architecture, literature, and a reversion to classical reforms
Artists began using new techniques in manipulation of lights and darks in the art pieces
New themes emerged, such as mythological, classical, and secular, which were influenced by humanist thinking, although religious themes were still present
Artwork became more realistic with the use of perspective and the first nudes were depicted since classical times
An independent city with sovereign authority and surrounding territories
A self-governing city
Renaissance Italy was made up of independent merchant city-states
Italian city-states became the trade and cultural centers of Renaissance Europe
Conflicts among them prevented from creating a united Italy
When the citizens of Rome threatened that the cardinals would not leave Rome alive unless the they elected a Roman or Italian as pope, the Italian archbishop, Bari was crowned as Pope Urban VI, who desired to eliminate French cardinals. After many French cardinals withdrew from Rome, they issued a manifesto, saying that they were coerced by the mob and therefore Urban's election was null and void. They then chose one of their French cardinals, who took the title of Clement VII, to be the pope and return to Avignon. The Great Schism was initiated as the result of the two popes, one in Rome and the other in Avignon.
Europe's loyalties became divided: France, Spain, Scotland, and Southern Italy, supported Clement, while England, Germany, Scandinavia, and most of Italy supported Urban
The division followed political lines and the and reflected the division between France and England, such as the allies of France supporting the pope in Avignon, and the allies of England supporting the pope in Rome
Lasted for nearly forty years and had a harmful effect on the Catholic Church and Christendom
It worsened the financial abuses that had developed within the church during the Avignonese papacy
Two papal administrative systems increased taxation
It damaged the faith of Christian believers
Questioning of the Church teachings and attacks on its corruption and unbridled power arose
A commercial and military alliance of more than 100 North German cities and merchant guilds that dominated the Baltic Sea Trade from the 13th to 15th century
Founded by German coastal towns to protect their trading activity within themselves
They had established many commercial bases in the cities of England and northern Europe and more than eighty cities were part of the league
The most important city that played a major role in establishing the Hansa was the city of Lubeck in northern Germany
It continued to prosper as the Italians lost their supremacy during the Black Death
As they became more important, they were soon established as a major transportation center for trade
They had a monopoly on northern European trade in timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, and wines for two hundred years
Regardless of how successful they were, their lack of organization caused them to suffer
In the fifteenth century the Italian city-states' trade revived once again with the decline of the League
Literary movement associated with the Renaissance
An intellectual movement based on the study of Classical literary works of Greece and Rome
Individualism and secularism are two of its characteristics
The studies of this movement were, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy or ethics, and history-all based on writing of ancient Greek and Roman authors
Occupations were largely secular, such as teaching and writing, and most humanists were laymen rather than members of the clergy
Advocated the study of liberal arts and the examination of classical works
They changed the way Europeans perceived the world and encouraged skepticism of traditional authorities, including the Catholic Church
Petrarch, an Italian writer known as the father of Italian Renaissance humanism, promoted the study of the classics and ancient Greece and Rome
It spawned new interest in classical values, such as civic virtue, and rising curiosity about classical writers and philosophers
Interest in intellectual pursuits among wealthy laymen led to the increase of humanist schools and tutors
Renaissance humanist promoted grammar, rhetoric, poetry, ethics, and history
They freed education and thinking from the grip of church authorities
A characteristic of the Italian Renaissance, most noticeable in the intellectual and artistic realms
Emphasis on and interest in the unique traits of each person
People began to become more aware of themselves and take more interest in themselves, rather than the church
Art, for example, had begun to focus more on the individual and how fascinating the human was by expressing who they were and creating self-portraits through paintings and sculptures, instead of religious meanings
It stressed the emphasis of the moral worth of the individual and one's capabilities and talents
People became more self reliant and independent and were encouraged to use their own abilities and talents
Controls all aspects of leadership of a country, including government and religion
One of the major forms of governance during the Renaissance
In Northern Europe, divided feudal kingdoms gradually gave away to these monarchies as growing towns began to form alliances with kings
The clergy and the nobility were not able to assert their power against the emerging monarchies of the Hundred Years' War and the Great Schism
Sovereign states with centralized economic, military, and bureaucratic powers began to emerge
Kings gained more power through the ability of creating a standing national army and mercenaries
The most important national monarchies to emerge during the Renaissance were France, Spain, and England
The loss of England in the Hundred Years' War and the collapse of Burgundy allowed the unification of the French monarchy
As the result of the defeat of Richard III by Henry Tudor during the War of the Roses, Henry Tudor consolidated the power of the English monarchy as Henry VII
The marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon allowed the creation of the Spanish monarchy, who also gained control over the Spanish Church
During the Renaissance it helped stimulate art and architecture that became important to in this period of creativity
With the sponsorships of powerful and wealthy individuals and rulers, some artists were able to become successful
It was crucial for an artist to have a wealthy patron, since they were very dependent on their financial support in order to increase their status
Without them, art would not have become as popular as it did during the Renaissance and many artists would not have been able to promote their work or produce any work at all
Artists such as Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci had patrons
The Medici in Florence were one of the greatest patrons of literature and art, one of the artists they employed was Botticelli
The Medici were financing for their projects from the church
An inheritance practice in which the eldest son receives all or the largest share of the parents' estate
Many Europeans during the Renaissance lived by this law
Younger sons of the aristocracy continued to live the lives of aristocrats by becoming clergymen, a position of wealth and power
A period of increasing prosperity and steady progression in the arts
Artistic events and movements that occurred in Italy in the 15th century
Fresco and oil paintings where new developments in the 15th century art
Art work was becoming secular, but religious themes were still seen, and more realistic
It is often viewed as the transition of the medieval period to the Renaissance
A phase of rebirth that started in Italy during the mid-fourteenth century to the mid-sixteenth century, were humanism played a huge role
Throughout many events beginning from the thirteenth century, many had influenced the way people thought
The loss of faith in the church was a result led to the development of the renaissance
The great schism and other events that caused faith to be lost also led to the development of self-thinking and questioning
An age recovery from the fourteenth century, were many were recuperating from the effects of the Black death and economic recession
Commercial prosperity and new inventions like the paper and printing press impacted the people of the of this era and it's creation
Likewise, it had caused social, economical, and political effects
For example, fine arts and literature developed, women conditions improved, trade flourished, change in warfare occurred, and strong monarchies arose.
A cultured man of the Renaissance period who was knowledgeable, talented, educated, and proficient in varieties of fields
Men of the Renaissance sought to develop skills in all areas of knowledge to become the ideal Renaissance Man
The notion that men should embrace knowledge and develop their capacities at its fullest
Leonardo Da Vinci would be a prime example of the Renaissance Man, he was a painter, sculptor, humanist, scientist, architect, philosopher, engineer, and more
Also called a Universal Man
The process of becoming more concerned with material, worldly, temporal things and less with spiritual and religious things; a characteristic of the Italian Renaissance
Humanism was focused on secular ideas and often encouraged skepticism of traditional authorities, including the Catholic Church
The Renaissance was a period when non religious ideas, emerged as a result of corruption within the church
People became more non-religious in their writing, artwork, and beliefs
Religion was beginning to slowly be rejected in affairs of the state or in education, leading to the separation of the church and state
However, in countries like Spain, Catholicism still influenced a majority of its people
Art also had been influenced with new secular themes, however religious themes remained the subject of much Renaissance art
The everyday language of a region, as distinguished from a language used for special purposes, Latin was used for educational purposes
Late Medieval and Renaissance writing were produced in this language
The language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region
A Swiss historian of Renaissance art and culture in the nineteenth century studied philosophy and was a writer of many successful books. He was also known as one of the greatest discoverers of the Renaissance. Born as the son of a protestant clergyman, he was expected to study theology to become a clergy but instead he lost faith and went to study history in the University of Berlin. He was also a professor at Basel University and eventually went on to teaching art history, which was his passion. Unlike many historians in the past, Burckhardt concentrated on the life of the people, religion, art and literature instead of political and military history. As a writer he established the importance of art in history through many of his works. One of his best works known is "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy", which followed "The Age of Constantine the Great" (study of the Roman Empire in the 14th century) and "The Cicerone" (a guide to the works of art in Italy). "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy" was one of the most powerful interpretation book of the Italian Renaissance. In this work Burckhardt mentions the transition from medieval ages to the Renaissance where modern spirit and creativity began to flourish. His works became very important since it was the first modern work to to focus on social and cultural features of the time period. Even after his death, people who seek for a broader view of the Renaissance, refer to his work.
Leon Battista Alberti
An Italian humanist, architect, painter, sculptor, writer, and most important art-theorist of the early Renaissance in the fifteenth century. His artistic work was influenced by the theoretical treatises on Renaissance art, De Statua and Della Pittura and De Re Aedificatoria. Alberti was born an illegitimate child to a wealthy and high-ranking Florentine family that allowed him to receive a good education and be recognized. After receiving an education and obtaining his doctorates in canon law, he took a position as a literary secretary and then moved to Rome. One of his jobs as a literary assistant was to rewrite the lives of saints in latin. He also wrote many books, including one on how to paint. Once in Rome, he took holy orders and became a papal civil servant. Which led to his interests in ancient ruins through his study and influenced his architectural designs. His treatise on painting and architecture applied great influence of the 16th and 17th century artistic thought. He provided a base for the classical development of European style architecture through many of his designs and literary work. His impact on the Renaissance was immense and impacted the way many buildings were designed. Many buildings that Alberti designed wouldn't be standing today if it weren't for his creations.
House of Medici
The greatest bank in Europe during the 15th century. They first attained the power and political status in the city of Florence through commerce and banking. Florence was soon able to regain its success in banking. The bank expanded from cloth production into commerce, real estate, and banking. They also had branches in cities/ capitals of Italy, England, France, and Belgium. Eventually, they became on of the most wealthiest families in Italy. The Medici's did not win their power from war or birthright, but through their wealth. For a short moment they were also the bankers of the papacy and were able to produce big profit. Giovanni de Medici was the first to bring the family to their eminence by starting the bank. The Medici also supported art, architecture, and science and because of them large amounts of art was able to be produced during the Renaissance. Due to poor leadership the bank suffered from sudden decline and their financial edifice collapsed.
Castiglione's Book of the Courtier
During the 16th century aristocrats were expected with certain ideals. Castiglione's Book was a guide and fundamental handbook (published in 1528). In the book, Castiglione describes the three basic traits of the perfect courtier. All nobles were expected to possess flawless character, grace, talent, and noble birth. Overall , the book was about court life and how to act in court. This was a very important book for nobles and also brought them closer to being mentors of the king. It was one of the most widely known books in the 16th century and was translated into six languages. It influenced many nobles around Europe and was a great success.
Leaders of professional mercenary or military groups that were contracted by the Italian states to fight in numerous wars from the 14th to 16th century. It means contractor, people would contract mercenaries to fight for them in war. Without mercenary groups, people would be in chaos, since many who hired mercenaries knew nothing about fighting and war. As soon as the Italians began to raise mercenary armies, they were dominating principalities for themselves. There were times where many of these leaders and their soldiers were greedy and had disorderly behaviour. They would also change sides often and were never loyal to one person. Many of their battles also resulted into small bloodshed.
The Duke of Milan, was a condottieri and the founder of the Sforza dynasty in the 15th century. He was the illegitimate son of the the mercenary commander, Muzio Sforza, who he fought alongside at the age of eighteen. After his father was killed in battle, Sforza succeeded him and became one of the most powerful condottieri of his time. Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan, was one of the people who hired Sforza to serve him. Sforza also married his daughter, Bianca Maria and took over his title of Duke after his death and betrayal in order to take over Milan. Sforza and Cosimo de' Medici became close friends and eventually the development of the peace of lodi (peace agreement between Milan and florence) was established. Not only was he a warrior but he also sponsored art and improved Milan architecturally.
Cosimo de' Medici
Son of Giovanni Medici, began the first Medici dynasty and also became the leader of Florence during the 15th century. He earned much of his wealth and banking skills from his father and used them to prosper. Not only did he become the wealthiest man of his time but he also managed the papacy's finances. Just like many of the medicis, he supported and was patron of Renaissance art and artist. He spent much of the family fortune on enriching florence with art and architecture. He also founded the Medici library and the academy for Greek studies. The Medici's support for art had a major impact on the Renaissance and it's art.
Territories in the Italian Peninsula that were governed by the papacy from 754 to 1870. Around the early 4th century, popes (were also known as bishops) acquired property around Rome, known as the Patrimony of St. Peter. In the 5th century, the Western Empire came to an end and the Eastern Empire in Italy weakened, thus the power of the popes increased as well as their influence in central Italy, and more people relied on their protection. The Eastern Roman Empire were lands of the papal state and were supervised by officers of the church. In the 8th century, the papal states official beginning began. Because of the empire's increased imperial taxation, and their inability to protect Italy, pope Gregory the II and III turned away from the Byzantine empire. When Lombards then threatened to take over, Pippin III defeated their leader and promised to restore the popes land. During the middle ages, popes managed to maintain the papal states.When the Carolingian Empire broke up in the 9th century, Roman nobility took control of the papacy. Though they were not the best leader, they did want to preserve the papal states. In the 14th century, things got worse, popes were moving to Avignon and not returning to Rome, where they're suppose to be. Eventually, the Great Schism came along, aggravating the situation and leading to two rival popes fighting for the papal position. The papal states reached their greatest extent under the warrior pope, Julius II. After his death, the papals states status diminished due to the spread of the Reformation in the mid 16th century. When the papal states were annexed to Italy, the papal states were officially put to an end. The papal states were important, they were the ones who collected taxes, maintained court laws, and maintained military forces. It's members were also spiritual leader during the Middle Ages.
The marchioness of Mantua, Italy and one of the leading women and patrons of the Renaissance. At the age of 15th, she was married to Francesco Gonzaga, the marquees of Mantua, who held a powerful position during that time. She was most famous for her patronage of the Renaissance learning, arts, and literature. Isabella was born into the rich and noble family of the Este's and therefore received a good education and became familiar with many artists. Overall, Isabella supported many Renaissance painters, writers, poets, and musicians. She also developed a huge collection of artwork over her lifetime. When her husband was captured and put into prison by king Charles VIII's forces, she governed the city on her own and was soon able to bring him back with a peace treaty that she fought for. After her husband's death, Isabella served as regent until her son was old enough to take over. Not only was she able to accomplish many things during her lifetime, but she also made a huge impact on Renaissance art and women. She was a great example of a female who did not follow the traditional role of a women. Isabella also came to be known as the first lady of the Renaissance.
Peace of Lodi and balance of power
A treaty/peace agreement between Venice and Milan that was signed on April 9, 1454 and ended the war of succession to the Milanese duchy in favour of Francesco Sforza. Due to the 40 year peace period, balance was established among the five states that dominated the Italian peninsula. Both Venice and Milan were eager for peace, considering in the circumstances that they were in. Venice, was suffering from threats of its commercial empire by the Ottoman Turks and Sforza, duke of Milan was determined to get rid of costly war, thus they both were eager for peace. Some of the treaties terms was that Venice would recognize Sforza as their their duke of Milan and Milan would let Venice retain some territory in northern Italy. Because of this treaty, there was a few years of peace between the two cities and the other cities of Italy.
1527 sack of Rome
A military event on May 6, 1527 that was executed by The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. His army (led by Charles III) of Spanish Catholics and Lutherans entered Rome and within eight days, they looted and pillaged the city. Many popes were forced to flee from the vatican and take refuge elsewhere. Popes and Emperors have been competing for power over the Italian peninsula for over centuries. Before the sack of Rome, France entered the battle in 1494. Pope Clement VII made an alliance with France, which eventually led to the fighting in 1527 in Northern Italy for the Holy Roman Empire. In the end, Rome was able to recover.
Machiavelli's The Prince
One of the most famous treatise publicated in the 16th century on political power. Princes used it as a manual to successfully rule and acquire power of their kingdom. Machiavelli used his knowledge from ancient Rome to his concentration with Italy's political problems to back up his information and assemble his book. His purpose on writing this book was to discuss how things really are in real life and how prince's must understand human nature to achieve power. The book analyzes how the character and skill of a leader determines whether a prince will be successful and provides examples of many rulers who were and weren't. It was one of the most influential books in western literature and is still relevant even today.
The duty of a good citizen in a republican, it was a form of Republicanism during the Renaissance. It is a political and philosophical adjustment that indicates the value and importance of moral virtues that is passed along by citizens as they participate in the political life. The ideas of theorist like Cicero, Polybius, and Aristotle were the origin of republicanism. It emphasis the importance of man actively being engaged in the world and being the center of power. For communities to be able to govern themselves they need qualities like patience, patriotism, commitment to the law, and forgiveness. Attempts of reviving classical republicanism is due to the inspiration of civil humanism.
An Italian poet, scholar, and one of the early humanists during the Renaissance in the 14th century. As a son of a merchant, Petrarch was obliged to study law. When his father died, he abandoned law and studied literature and writing. During his early youth, Petrarch encountered a woman named Laura, whom he fell in love with. Since then on, most of his poems were about her and his unrequited love for her. This was a huge change in poetry, since not many poets wrote about love. His best work is found in the Canzoniere, with a sequence of poems and 317 sonnets, that were addressed to Laura. His work influenced Italian humanism and his vernacular poems was used to create the modern Italian language. In addition, his philosophy of humanism helped provoke the Renaissance. Petrarch is also known as the "Father of Humanism."
Leonardo Bruni's The New Cicero
A biography of Cicero, a roman philosopher and politician that became very widely known during the 1430's. It talks about the combination of political action and literary work of Cicero's life. Through participation in and out of the state, an individual will be able to think and act like a man. This gave people a positive point view and encouraged them in political affair.
Italian humanist during the 15th century. He spent most of his time studying Latin grammar and rhetoric in Rome. He left Rome not being able to obtain the position of a papal secretary but eventually achieved his ambition. One of his majors work was The Elegances of the Latin Language which purposes was to restore Latin to its proper position instead of vernacular. It examined the use of proper classical Latin and created a new literary standard. He identified the different stages of the Latin language as it developed and only accepted the Latin of the last century.
Marsilio Ficino and neoplatonism
An Italian scholar, translator, astrologer, Catholic priest, and one of the most famous philosophers of the Italian Renaissance during the 15 century. He was responsible for the revival of Neoplatonism (Platonic philosophy) and revising Plato's thoughts. Ficino was the first translator of Plato's work in Latin. His philosophical writing translations was significant to the development of early modern philosophy.
A religious and philosophical belief based on writing associated with Hermes Trismegistus during the Renaissance. It originated in Egypt during the first century. It taught that divinity is represented by nature and influenced people in the scientific revolution. Hermeticism, also known as "Thrice Great" is made up of three parts, alchemy, astrology, and theurgy. It also had an influence on Western magic traditions and occult movements. Hermeticism was important because it had a connection with the development of science. Many scientists were influenced by magic or alchemy when it came to controlling nature. These are also known as the three parts of wisdom. In general, hermeticism is the belief in supreme deity, in which the people and the universe is a part of.
Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man
A famous public written speech stated by Pico della Mirandola, a Renaissance philosopher and scholar, in 1486. Pico's Oration attempted to concentrate on centering the human capacity and perspective. Through his writing, he was able to teach the capacity of human achievement. He justifies the importance of the human search for knowledge and accepts that humans are the most wonderful creation. Pico's 900 theses were introduced in the Oration, which he believed were the foundation of the discovery of all knowledge. It formed the idea that a man has all the will and power to become anything he wishes to become within nature.
Refers to the arts or studies that were considered essential for a free man. In the middle ages it was applied to seven branches of learning, which are trivium of grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. During the Renaissance, these studies were those that opposed of a business and specialized education.
A Florentine statesman and historian during the late 15th to 16th century. He was a major political writer during the Italian Renaissance and had written the most important book of Italy's modern history, Storia d'Italia (The History of Italy). Not to mention. he was also friends with Niccolo Machiavelli. Francesco had brought a modern view of Florence and Rome which had not been done as well. He helped transform history writing by detaching with humanist conferences. He was also one of the first historians to use causes and effects to present history. Guicciardini had also written another book about his family memoirs name Storie Fiorentine and in english, The History of Florence. On 1514, he return to Florence and resumed his legal practices in working for the medici's.
A craftsmen, inventor, and printer in the 15th century who originated the development of the first modernized and movable print. At the time this was called block-printing. The first book to ever be printed by this printing press was, Gutenberg's bible. This invention led to the effective production of many books, and was essential for the success of the Reformation. It allowed many ideas to be communicated around the world faster and more effective. Overall there is little record of Gutenberg's life, he did many of his work in secret. In the end. Gutenberg didn't profit from any of his inventions and died in poverty, due to the spending of attempting to create new inventions.
The first great Italian painter in the 15th century during the Italian Renaissance. After joining a guild of other painters, he was influenced by the work of Donatello and Brunelleschi, whom became his peers. His greatest surviving work of all, were his frescoes (that were all relating to the church and religion) in the Brancacci Chapel. Tribute money and expulsion from paradise are one of his most famous works from the six fresco scenes he created. His artwork had a strong influence in the Florentine art, including Michelangelo.
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent was an Italian statesman, ruler of the Florentine republic, and a patron of the arts. He is also identified as the most brilliant members of the Medici family. Lorenzo ruled Florence with his younger brother, that was assasinated and left him to rule the city by himself until his own death. Lorenzo was recognized as one of the greatest and most successful leaders in Italy, when Florence was at the center of the cultural Renaissance. He supported artists like leonardo, Botticelli, and Michelangelo. Without his sponsorship many artist like Leonardo, Brunelleschi, and Michelangelo would not have been able to produce the work they did and many of their art wouldn't exist.
Known as the Allegory Spring, was a painting of the 15th century by the well-known Medici employee, Sandro Botticelli. By this time, religion was no longer the subjects of artist work. It was the largest mythological painting in the Renaissance and was commissioned by the Medici family. This painting reflects Botticelli's interest in Greek and Roman mythology. The art celebrates the arrival of spring and it's beauty, it covered with mythological symbolism, such as the gods and goddesses. This revealed cultural revival of Greek and Roman goddesses. It is Spanish for spring.
One of the most important artworks in the 15th century Renaissance. It was the first free standing male nude statue since antiquity of Greek sculptures. The sculpture captures the defeat of Goliath after being decapitated by David, who is posing heroically in success while he's nude (giving nudity a heroic view). Donatello presented a new way of viewing nudity during the Renaissance. Which eventually influenced other artist to incorporate nudity in their work. Donatello was trying to associate with David's innocent and virtuous youth by sculpting him naked. You can tell that David is young in this sculpture because of his undeveloped muscles and body.
The first modern dorm in architectural design and the largest dome ever built at the time of the Renaissance. It was built to cover the cathedral of Florence, Italy. The people of Florence built the cathedral, leaving space for a dome, in hope they might find someone to built it. The problem was that no one knew how to build such a large dome without it collapsing. However, Brunelleschi was able to design and build a strong dome using the engineer and architectural knowledge he had. Inspired by Roman Antiquity, he applied all of his interest into the Dome of Florence.
A period that was dominated by Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. It is the period that designates the high point of visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. It was the eruption of creative geniuses in history. The work of Ancient Greek and Rome were admired and studied by generations of artists, which led to the explosion in art to reach it's peak in a short amount of time.
Leonardo Da Vinci
An Italian Polymath and the perfect example of a true Renaissance Man. He was a skilled painter, sculptor, architect, scientist, mathematician, engineer, etc. More than any other man, Da Vinci represented Renaissance humanist perfection. Among his works, the Last Supper and The Mona Lisa are one of his most popular and influential artwork of the Renaissance. He kept a notebook in where he wrote many of ideas and inventions. He designed flying machines like airplanes and helicopter, that proved to actually fly. He also invented other machines that did not exist during his time, thus he is classified a genius. He also dissected about 30 cadavers and earned how the human body worked, which he also wrote about in his notes. He discovered how the heart worked and learned much more of the human anatomy. Overall, he was a genius!
An Italian painter and architect of the high Renaissance. He is best known for his Madonnas and his architecture in the Vatican. In addition, he also mastered frescoes such as "The School of Athens." He was heavily inspired by artists such as Bartolommeo, Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo and Masaccio and was able to develope a new form of style. He moved to Rome to paint in the Vatican under the patronage of Pope Julius II. He became very famous for his work at the Vatican and became the chief architect. He designed Rome's Santa Maria del Popolo Chapel and created the design for a chapel in Sant' Eligio Orefici. Religious building's weren't the only buildings he could design, he also designed palaces.
A pure marble statue of the biblical hero standing male nude. It displays the perfection of the human body. Unlike Donatello's David, where he is standing victorious with one foot on Goliath's head, Michelangelo's David looks tense and ready to fight. His David became one of the most recognized works in the Renaissance and were a symbol of strength and youthful beauty. Many people were astonished by the sculptor.
Played an important role in the Italian Renaissance art and history. The Chapel is residence to the most iconic Paintings. From the walls to the ceiling, everything is covered in beautiful artwork that was created by Michelangelo. Michelangelo's art meant to show the Fall of Man by explaining the 9 events from the book Genesis in the Bible. The Chapel was the location of Papal conclaves and was known as the Papal chapel. It was also named after Pope Sixtus IV, who restored between 1477-1480.
Bramante and Saint Peter's
An Italian architect from Urbino, he restored the principals of ancient architecture and introduced it to Milan and the High Renaissance to Rome. His biggest project was to build the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter, the most famous Roman catholic church in the world, where he worked alongside of many skilled artist and painter, among them was Michelangelo.
Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists
A book written by Giorgio Vasari in the 16th century, an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian. During the Renaissance, artists were seen as geniuses and vasari was able to help create this image through his series of brief biographies. The book is about the lives of various artists and it was dedicated to Cosimo I de' Medici. One of the artists that he wrote about was Leonardo da Vinci. It taught historians about these busy men and their lives. Vasari's was the first to use the term Renaissance on written text. The stories were filled with gossip and only some told the truth while others were based on generic fictions. The bibliographical stories present a highly influential theory of the development of the Renaissance art.
The art, architecture, and philosophy that took place outside of Italy (Northern Europe). Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside of Italy, thus not many people knew the new styles of the arts or anything that occurred in Italy, By the late 15th century, the ideas of the Renaissance had spread around Europe, influencing many countries. The tradition of Gothic Art was greatly affected by the technical and philosophical advancements of the Renaissance in Italy. Unlike the artists of the Italian Renaissance, Northern Renaissance artists focused on ideal detail and were less concerned with the anatomy.
Jan van Eyck
A painter in the Northern Renaissance who used extreme detail in his oil paintings. He was the first to use oil paints to create fine details. This replaced the egg-tempera painting. He took great care depicting every object and became an expert at translating every detail. He was a famous artist who inspired the Northern Renaissance.
A German Renaissance artist, theorist, and printmaker. Most of his work was religious and was influenced by the Italians. He made altarpieces, portraits and self-portraits, engraving, and woodcuts. Traveling to Italy impacted his drawings, paintings, and graphics. He is one of the most admired artist in the history of German art.
Developed in the 16th century in Italy. They are sung within groups of people without any instrumental attendance. A secular vocal music arrangement of the Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Also known as poems that are arranged to musical pieces.
The reconstruction of kingdoms/thrones around Northern Europe during the the end of the 15th century. The new monarchs created a strong central government with the help of a standing army. This way, monarchs were able to establish control over the aristocracy and the clergy. Thus it decreased the power of the aristocrats and the clergy, and monarchies were able to enact laws however they wanted to. The government stability led to the further development of trade.
Louis XI the Spider and Henry VII
A monarch of the house of Valois and ruled France in the 15th century. He was also known for establishing grand territory of states.
A monarch, ruler of England, who worked hard to establish a monarchy government.
Both monarchs increased income taxes and had clever ways of gathering resources for money. They also created strong monarchies.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Married to bring unification to both their kingdoms.They reorganized the military forces of Spain and developed a strong infantry force. They were the monarchs whose marriage created the union of Castile and Aragon which formed the Kingdom of Spain.
The attempt of converting spanish Jews into Christians or the discovery and punishment of heresy. In 1478, Ferdinand and Isabella asked the Pope to introduce the inquisition to Spain in order to maintain Catholic orthodoxy. They expelled Jews from Spain and around 150,000 out of 200,000 fled. The jews had a choice of converting to christianity and confess their heresy. Those who did not admit of committing heresy would be publicly killed or sentenced to prison for life.
One of the most important royal houses of Europe and the dynasty that ruled the remains of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1438 to 1740, the throne was occupied by the Habsburgs. They acquired a number of possessions along the Danube and had become one of the wealthiest landholders in the empire by the mid 15th century. Much of their success was due to a well executed policy of dynastic marriages.
A grand prince of Moscow who annexed other Russian principalities from the Mongols. He laid the foundation for Russian and became recognized as one of the longest reigning rulers. He completed the unification of Russian lands, and his reign marks the beginning of Muscovite Russia.
Constantinople and 1453
Great battle for Constantinople
Ottoman empire invaded Constantinople and destroyed their city walls
Byzantine empire died in final battle
Ottoman conquered Constantinople
Identify how views of other Europeans influenced radical supporters of the French Revolution.
Who is the author of Sic et Non?
What type of Christianity did the Byzantine Empire create?
Why were the Seljuk Turks important?
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The pattern of Axis conquest through 1942 resulted most directly from which of the following factors? (A) The military commitment of the Soviet Union enabled it to engage in a successful counteroffensive. (B) Italian dominance in the eastern Mediterranean enabled German dominance in France and Belgium. (C) The defeat of France and Britain allowed the Axis powers to successfully invade the Soviet Union. (D) Germany's Blitzkrieg tactics brought the Axis powers early victories.
How did popular religion differ from institutional religion in the eighteenth century?
Over time, the Industrial revolution altered family structure and relations for bourgeois and working-class families. (A) Briefly explain TWO ways in which the changes that occurred in family structure and relations within the bourgeois and working-class families were similar. (B) Briefly explain ONE way in which the changes that occurred in family structure and relations within the bourgeois and working-class families were different.
Based on the passage, which of the following can be inferred about Fabri's beliefs? (A) He was supportive of the increased nationalism that characterized this time period. (B) He was anti-Semitic. (C) His goal was the political unification of Germany. (D) He was supportive of the idea that all groups in society should actively participate in government.