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Terms in this set (80)
how does the author become aware of the child immigration issue?
talking with maid, Carmen, & finding out she has children out of the country
what goal does the author have in researching/writing the story?
to give a vivid account of the experiences child immigrants go through
why does the author tell the reader about her research process?
so the reader understands the precautions and dangers she went through on her journey
what age and gender is the average U.S.-Mexico immigrant?
15 year old boys
why do so many young children get stuck in shelters near the border?
they get robbed of their mother's phone #'s
what near constant danger does the author tell the reader she was haunted by?
getting raped, beaten, or robbed
what reasons does the author give for young children to cross the border?
-reunite w/ family
what goal does the author have for Latina mothers?
have them understand the consequences of leaving their children for work
what memories does Lourdes have that leads her to believe America is the best place to go?
seeing NY, Vegas, & Disney on TV
how long does Lourdes think she will be gone from her children?
less than a year
what is ironic about Lourdes's job as a nanny? why does she leave that job?
she is leaving her own children to work as a "mother" for another person's child. she leaves because seeing another child makes her miss and long for her own children
how does Enrique end up abandoned a second time?
his father leaves with his new girlfriend & leaves Enrique w/ his grandmother
what emotion does the author say Lourdes feels regarding her shabby living conditions in the United States?
Lourdes is ashamed of her living, because it's nothing like she imagined
other that her smuggler leaving her in California, how else is Lourdes abandoned in the first part of the story?
she is abandoned by Santos when she unintentionally gets pregnant
what two reasons does the author give for Belky's anger about her mother giving birth to Diana?
1. Belky thinks her mother will lose interest in her & Enrique
2. her mother will spend $ she should be saving to reunite w/ Enrique & Belky on the baby
why does Lourdes decide against using a smuggler (coyote) to bring her children to the US?
1. dangers (rape, beating, robbery)
how does the author use imagery to show the reader the poverty in Enrique's community?
-Lourdes & Enrique scavenging the dump for food/items to sell
-children carrying sawdust up hill 3x daily
what evidence does the author use to show Enrique no longer feeling as if his mother will come back?
-lourdes always promises to return/ never does
-Enrique realizes how few mothers actually come back
-bad behavior @ school
after Enrique goes to live with Uncle Marco, he finally feels _______.
what does Uncle Marco do for Enrique that make Enrique feel wanted?
-private military school
-watches movies w/ Enrique
-plays billiards w/ Enrique
why does Enrique have to leave Uncle Marco's
Uncle Marco's girlfriend kicks Enrique out after Uncle Marco is killed
who is Maria Isabel
how are Enrique & Maria Isabel similar?
-both moved around houses
-both have unfaithful fathers who left their mothers
why does Enrique want to have a child with Maria Isabel?
so she won't abandon him
what are three bad habits Enrique gets into in Honduras?
-coming home late
-venturing into "Little Hell"
how old is Enrique the first time he tried to train hop?
who is with Enrique the first time he tries to train hop?
how much time does Enrique give himself to successfully make the journey to the US before he will accept his fate and return to Honduras?
what injuries does Enrique sustain at the beginning of part two?
gashed shin, split lib, swollen face, & bloodied eyes
what simple measure does the Mayor of Las Anonas's mother use to clean Enrique's wounds?
hot water, salt, & herbs
most of the villagers of Las Anonas thing Enrique will die, what gives them this impression?
they have experienced other migrants in Enrique's position & have seen them die
what do most of the first attempts Enrique tries to make North all have in common?
he was always sent back by la migra
under the section titled "Good Medicine", Nazario gives a detailed explanation of what happened to Enrique and other migrants from the doctor's perspective. Why might this be an effective way to tell the story?
it gives a professional's view on how badly injured migrants can become
what imagery does the author use to evoke a sense of calmness when Enrique sleeps among the headstones in the cemetery
paints a picture of an illuminated, colorful cemetery
on Enrique's eighth attempt north he is captured by la migra but he escapes. How does this happen?
he hops the fence by getting a boost from another guy and runs away
what is the police called in central america/mexico?
what does the phrase "se le comio' el tren" mean?
the train ate him up
according to the author, how many women are sexually assaulted during their journey? what method do some women use to try to avoid being raped?
- one in six migrant girls are sexually assaulted
-to avoid rape: women dress as men, or write "tengo SIDA" on their chests (I have aids)
what does "tengo SIDA" mean?
i have aids
what are some of the small items that migrants may carry with them on their journey north? why do they carry so few items?
-tooth brush, water bottle, rosary, bible
-carry little so they can travel fast
what are some of the nicknames of the trains people take north?
-El Gusano De Hierro (The iron worm)
-El Caballo De Hierro (the iron horse)
-El Tren Peregrino (the pilgrim's train)
what are some of the illicit activities police forces have been accused of and how do they affect the migrants?
police shoot at, torture, and burn caught migrants. this makes migrants often give up or crazy, & it means police can't be trusted
how does Nazario discuss the city of Chiapas and the way citizens feel about migrants?
describes residents as backward & ignorant, they are fed up w/ migrants
chiapas is described as extremely dangerous
describe how gangs can be both dangerous and a form of protection on the trip north
dangerous because they beat & rob migrants
can provide protection if you befriend them
where do injured migrants that have lost body parts to the trains end up in Tapachula? who cares for them?
Shelter of Jesus the Good Shepherd- cared for by Olga Sanchez Martinez
why is it necessary for Enrique to spend money cutting his hair once he has reached Oaxaca?
it has grown too long & it will give him away if he doesn't cut it
how is the state of Veracruz different from the people of Chiapas? 3 examples
-people share food
-signal if hostile police are ahead
-wave & smile
in what ways does Enrique find help from other riders and how does he give help and support?
gives: food & tips
receives: care, soap, advice
what are some of the ways that Mexican employers take advantage of Central American labor? how is this similar to the way Americans treated Lourdes?
Mexican employers often only pay a fraction of minimum wage & treat central americans badly
relates to Lourdes's situation because she works very hard in America but doesn't make a lot of money & isn't treated very well
how does the job Enrique takes as a bricklayer help him prepare for the next leg of his trip?
his employer gives him helpful advice on how to reach the border
who is El Tirindaro?
the leader of the river camp Enrique is staying at/ smuggler/ eventually Enrique's smuggler
what job does Enrique take so he can raise money while in Nuevo Laredo?
how does Enrique get food while in Nuevo Laredo? who is responsible for helping him?
-tacos from street vendors
-food cards from St. Joseph's Parish
how did the parishioners come to change their mind about having migrants in their city? what example was set forth?
Father Leo changed parishioner's views, example put forth was Padre Leo's kindness towards the migrants
how is Gabi's story similar to Enrique's? how is it different?
similar- mothers are divorced, both left for US, both mothers found work as nannies in US
different- Gabi's mom left w/out goodbye
why is Enrique stuck in Nuevo Laredo?
he cannot remember his mother's phone number
what process must Enrique go through to get his mother's phone number?
he must save pesos by working/begging so that he can purchase to phone cards, one to call his mother's old place of work & ask for her number, and one to call his mother. it takes long because he must also buy food
where does Enrique finally get to make his phone call?
at the church
how does the phone calling system work?
Enrique calls his old boss, explains his situation, waits for a call back, and receives his mother's phone number
how does part 2 end?
Enrique calling Lourdes, Lourdes will pay $1,200 for El Tirindaro to smuggle him to North Carolina
what two things does Enrique promise to do after arriving in the US?
-bring his daughter north asap
how does Jasmin get to the US?
she travels north w/ Enrique's cousin & a woman he trusts. Jasmin is caught by border patrol & is sent to be with her parents, who happen to be in the US
how does Enrique's family deal with the threat of immigration and deportation? How does this affect their daily lives?
-keeping low profile
-not reporting any crimes
makes their daily lives scary because they cannot call for help when any gang violence occurs
why are Latino men and women targets for violence and theft in the US?
because most Latinos are residing illegally in the US, so they will not report any crimes
why is Enrique threatened w/ deportation?
he is arrested for a ticket he never payed for
why does the author decide to break journalistic rules & intervene in Enrique's deportation case?
she thinks that if Enrique is deported, his fame will but his life at risk back at home in the dangerous country of Honduras
what tactics do the Zetas use to raise money?
kidnap & torture migrants, contact their families & demand ransom
how does being in jail for 6 months affect Enrique's family?
puts the family in a sadness, Enrique couldn't see the the birth of his newborn, he can't physically see or touch his family either
what has happened to the city of Nuevo Laredo since Enrique left?
violence has skyrocketed, raging battles between drug dealers, murders, Zeta's also seized control, causing events like shootouts, bombings, & grenades being fired
how does the author use information from Gabriel Murillo, a counselor at a transitional school for immigrant children, to support her previous discussion of Lourdes and Enrique's constant fights?
author includes info about common struggles between families once reuniting, Enrique & Lourdes are not the only mother & child who fight a lot
what kind of changes occur when immigrants go back to their home countries?
bring back new skills & stronger desire for democratic process.
how do Lourdes & Enrique disagree about immigration to the US?
Enrique- illegal immigrants should be restricted
Lourdes- immigrants help drive american economy
what do studies say that reinforce Lourdes' idea about immigration?
immigrants help american economy by preventing businesses that rely on the cheap immigrant labor from being forced to close
who benefits the most from illegal immigration?
industries that use immigrants as workers, this is because they can underpay and treat the immigrants bad because they are illegal & won't go to the police
how is Enrique failing Maria Isabel and Jasmin? How does he try to rectify this?
he left them, he is doing drugs. he vows to start sending money
how does Maria Isabel try to stay connected to Enrique?
video calls 1x a week, & calls
how does Maria Isabel teach her daughter about Enrique?
by showing her pictures
after the third New Year's in the US, Enrique vows to make changes, what does he do?
he cuts his hair, loses weight, & quits drugs & drinking
who greets Enrique in Orlando to bring Enrique to his mother?
how does the author describe the first meeting between Enrique & his mother?
heartfelt but no crying
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