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60 terms

Chapter 1 & 2 Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods

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psychology
the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research
physiological
having to do with an organism's physical process
cognitive
having to do with an organism's thinking and understanding
describe, explain, predict, influence
goals of psychology
hypothesis
an assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research
theory
a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study
basic science
the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake
applied science
discovering ways to use scientific finding to accomplish practical goals
scientific method
a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Origins of Psychology: Ancient Greeks
Socrates
learn about ourselves by examining our thoughts and feelings
Plato
"Know Thyself"
Aristotle
human behavior is subject to certain rules and laws; Peri Psyche- "about the mind"
Origins of Psychology: Middle Ages
common thought that people were possessed by demons; subjected people to water-float tests
dualism
the mind and body are separate and distinct
Rene Descartes
believe the mind and body influenced each other; the mind controlled the body's movements, sensations,and perceptions
structuralist
a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
Wilhelm Wundt
structuralist
introspection
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
functionalist
a psychologist who studied the function (rather than the structure) of consciousness; concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
William James
functionalist
Sir Francis Galton
wanted to understand how heredity influences a person's abilities, character, and behavior; concluded that genius or eminence is a heredity trait; Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development- raised questions as to whether or not behavior is determined by heredity or environment
Gestalt Psychology
idea that the context in which something occurs affects the way we perceive it; perception is more than the sum of its parts; "whole pattern"
Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka
Gestalt psychologists
structuralism, functionalism, inheritable traits, gestalt psychology
historical approaches to psychology
psychoanalytic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, biological, sociocultural
contemporary approaches to psychology
psychoanalyst
a psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior, feelings, and thoughts
Sigmund Freud
psychoanalyst; believed that our conscious experiences are only the tip of the iceberg, that beneath the surface are primitive biological urges that are in conflict with the requirements of society and morality
Free Association
a method for indirectly studying unconscious behavior; a patient said everything that came to mind without attempting to produce logical or meaningful statements; technique used by Freud
behaviorist
a psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner
behaviorists
Ivan Pavlov
behavior is a product of prior experience
John Watson
behavior is the result of conditioning and occurs because of the appropriate stimulus is present in the environment; believed that psychology should concern itself only with the observable facts of behavior
B.F. Skinner
introduced reinforcement (a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated); Walden Two
humanist
a psychologist who believes that each person has freedom in directing his or her future and achieving personal growth
Abram Maslow, Carl Rogers
humanists
cognitivist
a psychologist who studies how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how thought processes influence our behavior
Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, Leon Festinger
cognitivists
Jean Piaget
believes that behavior is more than a simple response to a stimulus; behavior is influenced by a variety of mental processes, including perceptions, memories, and expectations
psychobiologist
a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
sociocultural
study the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning
sample
the small group of participants, out of the total number available, that a researcher studies
naturalistic observation
research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering
case study
research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
survey
research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
longitudinal study
research method in which data are collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development
cross-sectional study
research method in which data are collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age
correlation
the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data
hypothesis
an educated guess about the relationship between two variables
variable
any factor that is capable of change
experimental group
the group to which an independent variable is applied
control group
the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable) is not applied
self-fulfilling prophecy
a situation in which a researcher's expectations influence that person's own behavior, and thereby influence the participant's behavior
single-blind experiment
an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment
double-blind experiment
an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants known which participants received which treatment
placebo effect
a change in a participant's illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment
stratified sample
look at the specific make up of the population being studied
positive correlation
both variables increase and/or decrease together
negative correlation
as one variable increases, the other decreases and vice versa
no correlation
no relationship between variables