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a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
Origins of Psychology: Middle Ages
common thought that people were possessed by demons; subjected people to water-float tests
believe the mind and body influenced each other; the mind controlled the body's movements, sensations,and perceptions
a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
a psychologist who studied the function (rather than the structure) of consciousness; concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
Sir Francis Galton
wanted to understand how heredity influences a person's abilities, character, and behavior; concluded that genius or eminence is a heredity trait; Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development- raised questions as to whether or not behavior is determined by heredity or environment
idea that the context in which something occurs affects the way we perceive it; perception is more than the sum of its parts; "whole pattern"
structuralism, functionalism, inheritable traits, gestalt psychology
historical approaches to psychology
psychoanalytic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, biological, sociocultural
contemporary approaches to psychology
a psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior, feelings, and thoughts
psychoanalyst; believed that our conscious experiences are only the tip of the iceberg, that beneath the surface are primitive biological urges that are in conflict with the requirements of society and morality
a method for indirectly studying unconscious behavior; a patient said everything that came to mind without attempting to produce logical or meaningful statements; technique used by Freud
a psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
behavior is the result of conditioning and occurs because of the appropriate stimulus is present in the environment; believed that psychology should concern itself only with the observable facts of behavior
introduced reinforcement (a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated); Walden Two
a psychologist who believes that each person has freedom in directing his or her future and achieving personal growth
a psychologist who studies how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how thought processes influence our behavior
believes that behavior is more than a simple response to a stimulus; behavior is influenced by a variety of mental processes, including perceptions, memories, and expectations
a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
study the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning
the small group of participants, out of the total number available, that a researcher studies
research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering
research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
research method in which data are collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development
research method in which data are collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age
the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable) is not applied
a situation in which a researcher's expectations influence that person's own behavior, and thereby influence the participant's behavior
an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment
an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants known which participants received which treatment
a change in a participant's illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment
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