AP Nsl Unit 1 Review
Terms in this set (50)
Policy Making skills
the process by which policy comes into being and
evolves over time.
Traditional democratic theory
The form of government that Americans are most aware of. This theory is based on the "consent of the governed" and states that the government should always be in the hands of the people, and that the citizens should have the most political power.
American political culture
Contains a number of core ideals and values but Not all Americans share the same views, of course, but the vast majority subscribes to these general ideals, including liberty, equality, democracy, individualism, unity, and diversity.
The theory that a small minority, consisting of members of the economic elite and policy-planning networks, holds the most power and that this power is independent of a state's democratic elections process
A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is manly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that the governments is weakened. It is an extreme exaggerated or perverted form of pluralism.
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that states their grievances against the British monarchy.
One of the most influential philosophers, his believed in natural rights
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on government which include life, liberty and property
Consent of the governed
The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people
The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the
United states. The articles established a national legislature the continental congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures.
A series of attacks on courthouse by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shay to block foreclosure proceedings
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth. Today an example are political parties
Federalist papers 10
James Madison argues for the adoption of the constitution, federalist paper __ (written in 1787) argues that a strong central government can guard against the "factionalism" of smaller republics, a broad, strong national government that should remain non-partisan. and Madison also includes the difference between a democracy and republic
Federalist paper 51
Madison wrote in 1788. agreed that Three separate, independent branches with the same amount of power( except the legislative branch would be bigger). Government should control people, but also its self, and individual rights should be protected. also stated that ideal society wouldn't need government and people have ultimate power
The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established two houses of Congress :the House of representatives, in which representation is based on a state share of the U.S population and the senate, in which each state has two representatives
Writ of Habeas Corpus
A court order jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
The population of slaves would be counted as three-fifths in total when apportioning Representatives, as well as Presidential electors and taxes. It was proposed by James Wilson and Roger Sherman, who were both delegates for the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the constitution
Separation of Powers
A feature of the Constitution that requires each of the three branches of government- executive, legislative and judicial - to be relatively independent of the other so that one control cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions
Checks and Balances
Feature of the Constitution that limit governments power by requiring that power be balanced among the different government institutions. These institutions continually constrain one another activities.
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws
Opponents of the American Constitution
Supporters of the U.S Constitution
The power of the courts to determine whether acts of congress and implication, the executive are in accords with the U.S Constitution.
Formal amendment process
The Constitution provides that an amendment may be proposed either by the Congress with a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by two-thirds of the State legislatures.
Informal changes to Constitution
The United States Constitution can be changed informally. Informal amendments mean that the Constitution does not specifically list these processes as forms of amending the Constitution, but because of change in society or judicial review changed the rule of law de facto.
Powers that are called delegated powers, sometimes called enumerated powers, which are powers specifically given to the federal government
Reserved powers are also distinguished from exclusively delegated powers, such as the exclusive federal powers in the United States.
States have reserved power, power denied to the federal government but not the state governments, but the Constitution still lists powers that are denied to them.
Powers of the Federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution; for congress, these powers are listen in Article 1 Section 8, include the power to coin money, regulate its value and impose taxes.
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The constitution states that congress had the power to "Make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers in enumerated in Article 1
Necessary and Proper Clause/ Elastic Clause
The final paragraph of Article 1 section 8, of the constitution which authorizes congress to pass all laws that where needed to carry out the enumerated powers
Article VII of the constitution, which makes the constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits
McCulloch v. Maryland
The 1819 supreme court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over the state government. The chief justice decided that congress has certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated found in the constitution
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice and his associated first asserted the right of the Supreme court to determine the meaning . of the U.S Constitution
Gibbons v. Ogden
A Landmark cases decided in 1824 in which the supreme court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, section 8 of the constitution giving congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually evert form of Commercial activity.
A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of Shared power between unites of government
A way of organizing a nation so that all the power resides in the central government. Most national governments today are unitary governments.
Hint think of articles of Confederation
joined by an agreement or treaty.
A System of government in which both the state and the national government remain supreme within their own sphere , each responsible for some policies
A system of government in which powers and policy assignment are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs , administration and even blame for programs that work poorly.
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states if communities to support broad programs in areas such a community development and social services
Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or categories of state and local spending.They come with strings attached, such as non discrimination provisions.
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulation
Federal categorical grants given for specific purpose and awarded on the basis of merit of application
Full Faith and Credit
A Clause in article IV, of the constitution requiring each state to recognize the official document and civil judgement rendered by the courts of the other states.
The constitutional amendment stated that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively or to the people
Transferring responsibility for policies form the federal government to state and local government.
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