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870 terms

DAT Biology 1

The magnification of the eyepiece X magnification of the objective.
Total magnification
What two organisms convert ammonia to Uric Acid before secreting it?
1. Insects 2. birds
What type of organisms convert ammonia to urea before excreting it?
A histone DNA complex is called a XXXXXXXX?
Where does rRNA synthesis occur?
What is the term used to define membrane-bound sacs involved in the transport and storage of materials that are ingested, secreted, processed, or digested by the cell?
What is the term used to define a protein that lowers the activation energy of a reaction, increases the rate of a reaction, does not affect the overall change of dG in the reaction, and are not changed or consumed in the course of the reaction?
What is the usual optimal temperature for an enzyme?
40 degrees Celsius
What is the optimal pH for an enzyme in the body?
pH 7.2
What is the term used to define when high energy hydrogen atoms are removed from organic molecules?
How many molecules of ATP does Cellular respiration yield?
Were does glycolysis occur in a cell?
What is the term used to define the knob on microscopes that roughly focuses the image?
Coarse Adjustment
The cell wall is only present in these two types of eukaryotes?
Fungi and Plants
When glucose supplies run low the body utilizes other energy sources, what are these three sources in the correct order?
1. Other carbohydrates 2. Fats 3. Other proteins
How many molecules of ATP does fermentation yield?
Sister chromatids are XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX of each other.
Identical copies
At what stage of mitosis do chromosomes condense and spindles form?
At what stage of mitosis does a new nuclear membrane form?
At what stage of mitosis does the two cells divide and pinch off from one another?
What organisms lack centrioles?
Does meiosis preserve the diploid number of cells?
No, it halves them, ex: from 2n to 1n
During Prophase I homologous chromosomes come together & intertwine, what is this process called?
Sometimes during Prophase I chromatids of homologous chromosomes break at corresponding points and exchange equivalent pieces of DNA what is this process called?
Crossing over
Were does meiosis only occur in organisms?
Sex cells (Primordial germ cells)
Can crossing over occur in mitosis?
No, only in meiosis I
What do the ovaries produce?
Oocytes (eggs)
Were does spermatogenesis or sperm production occur?
Seminiferous tubules
Where and what organisms use external fertilization?
In the water: fish and amphibians
What organisms participate in internal fertilization?
Species that care for their young produce fewer what?
To remember the pathway of sperm think seven up, and what does this acronym stand for?
Seminiferous tubules, Epididymis, Vas Deferens, Ejaculatory duct, Nothing, Urethra, Penis
What is the term used to describe a multilayered sac of cells that contains, nourishes, and protects an immature ovum?
What type of cells produce estrogen?
Follicle cells
The secretion of both estrogens and progesterone is regulated by what two things?
LH and FSH
What steroid hormone is secreted by the corpus luteum?
What are the four different types of asexual reproduction?
1. Budding 2. Parthenogenesis 3. Fission 4. Regeneration
How do prokaryotes reproduce?
Term used to describe a cell dividing into two equally sized cells with equal amounts of cytoplasm, each containing a duplicate of the parent chromosome? Or the asexual reproduction of prokaryotes?
Binary Fission
What is the term used to describe replication of the nucleus followed by unequal cytokinesis?
What type of asexual reproduction do organisms such as ameoba, paramecia, algae, and bacteria do?
What type of asexual reproduction do hydra and yeasts do?
What is the term used to describe the development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organism?
What is the term used to define chromosomes that exist in homologous pairs that are not allosomes (sex chromosomes)?
The resulting Zygote of a non-disjunction event will either result in a XXXXXXXX having three copies of a chromosome, or a XXXXXXXXX having a single copy of that chromosome.
Trisomy or Monosomy
What is the term used to define a chemical compound that inhibits spindle formation thereby causing polyploidy, it is termed a mutagenic agent?
In DNA what contributes the most to the stability of DNA?
The Guanine and Cytosine content becuase Guanine and Cytosine makes 3 hydrogen bonds with each other while Adenine and Thymine make only two hydrogen bonds with each other.
Most amino acids have more than one XXXXXX specifying them.
Each codon represents only one XXXXXX XXXXXXX?
Amino Acid
New DNA is synthesized in the XXXXXXX to XXXXXXXX direction?
5' to 3'
RNA is synthesized in the XXXXXXXX to XXXXXXXX direction?
5' to 3'
A protein is synthesized from RNA in the XXXXXXX to XXXXXX direction?
5' to 3'
Where are ribosomes synthesized?
What is the term used to define the process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA which leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores?
Where does transcription occur?
Where does translation occur?
What is the term used to define were mRNA codons are sequenced into amino acids?
What is the term used to define the complimentary sequence of the mRNA codon located on the tRNA?
Ribosomes are composed of two subunits, what are these subunits?
Protein and rRNA
Drug resistance in microrganisms is regulated by cytoplasmic DNA known as what?
What is the term used to define plasmids that are capable of integration into bactrial genomes?
What are three mechanisms for increasing genetic variance in in a population of bacteria?
1. Transformation 2. Conjugation 3. Transduction
What is the term used to define the process by which a foreign chromosome fragment (plasmid) is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination, creating new inheritable genetic combinations?
What is the term used to define sexual mating between bacteria in which an F+ bacteria exchanges DNA with an F- bacteria?
What is the term used to define the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another via a virus?
What is the term used to define noncoding sequences of DNA that serves as a binding site for the RNA polymerase?
What is the term used to define an area of DNA on a gene that codes for the synthesis of repressor molecules that binds to the operator and blocks the RNA polymerase from transcribing structural genes?
What is the term used to define a system that requires the presence of a substance for transcription to occur?
Inducible systems that require an inducer
What is the term used to define systems that are in a constant state of transcription unless a substance is present to inhibit transcription?
Repressible systems, that require a corepressor
What is the term used to define when operons containing mutations such as deletions or whose regulator genes code for defective repressors are incapable of being turned off, and whose enzymes are always being synthesized are called what?
What is the term used to define a virus that infects its hosts bacterium?
What is the term used to define a technique for the detection of specific DNA sequences in a specific DNA sample?
Southern Blot
What is the term used to define joining DNA fragments by catalyzing the formation of phosphodiester bonds between DNA nucleotides?
DNA Ligase
Where does fertilization occur in vertebrates?
What happens if more than one egg is fertilized in vertebrates?
Fraternal twins may be conceived.
What is the term used to describe early embryonic development characterized by a series of rapid mitotic divisions?
What is the term used to describea process that results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into a complete organism?
Indeterminate cleavage
What type of cleavage may result in identical twins?
Indeterminate cleavage
What is the term used to describe cells whose future differentiation pathways are determined at an early developmental stage?
Determinate cleavage
What is the term used to describe the specialization of cells that occurs during development?
What is the term used to describe a solid ball of embryonic cells?
WHat begins when the morula develops a fluid-filled cavity, and what is it called?
What is the term used to describe a hollow sphere of cells that occur after the fourth day of fertilization?
Once implanted in the uterus, cell migrations transform the single cell layer of the blastula into a three-layered structure called the XXXXXXXXX.
What layer of tissues is composed of the integument (including the epidermis, hair, nails, and epithelium of the nose, mouth, and anal canal), the lens of the eye, the retina, and the nervous system?
What layer of tissue is composed of the epithelial linings of the digestive and respitory tracts, (including the lungs), and parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder lining.
What layer of tissue is composed of the musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, connective tissue throughout the body, and portions of digestive and respiratory organs?
What organisms lay eggs that are fertilized externally in the water?
Fish and Amphibians
What type of organisms develope externally on land?
Reptiles, birds, and some mammals
What is the term used to describe the material that lines the inside of thre shell, it is a moist membrane that permits gas exchange?
What is the term used to describe the sac-like structure that is involved in respiration and excretion and contains numerous blood vessels to transport Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, water, salt, and nitrogenous wastes?
What is the term used to describe the membrane that encloses the amniotic fluid?
What is the term used to describe the material that provides an aqueous environment which protects the developing embryo from shock?
Certain animals including marsupials and some tropical fish develop in the mother without a XXXXXXXXXX?
Without a placenta, exchange of food and oxygen between the young and the mother is XXXXXXXXXXXXX. The young may be born very XXXXXXXX?
Gas exchange in the fetus occurs accross the XXXXXXXXX?
Fetal lungs do not become functional until XXXXXXXXX?
The growing fetus recieves oxygen directly from its mother through a specialized circulatory system. This system not only supplies oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, but removes carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes as well? WHat are the two components of this sytem?(2)
1. Placenta 2. Umbilical Cord
What is the term used to describe a thin, tough membrane containing a watery fluid? It is the first membrane in a fetus?
What is the term used to describe a substance that acts as a shock absorber of external localized pressure from uterine contractions during labor?
Amniotic Fluid
What is the term used to describe the membrane that completely surrounds the amnion. This is the second layer in the human embryo?
What is the term used to describe the thrid membrane, developes as outpocket of the gut, later the blood vessels of this membrane enlarge and become the umbilical chord, which connects the fetus to the developing placenta?
What is the term used to describe the last membrane of the fetus, that becomes associated with the umbilical vessels?
Yolk Sac
What stage of labor is it when the cervix thins out and dialates, and the amniotic sac ruptures releasing fluids, during this time contractions are relatively mild?
Stage 1
What stage of labor is characterized by rapid contractions, resulting in birth of the baby, followed by cutting of the umbilical chord?
Second Stage
What stage of labor is characterized by the uterus contracting, and expels the placenta and umbilical chord?
3rd stage (Final)
In protozoans, movement of gases and nutrients is accomplished by XXXXXXX XXXXXXXX within the cell.
Simple Diffusion
Hydras and cnidarians have body walls that are XXXXX cells thick?
Do Hydras and Cnidarians have specialized circulatory sytems?
What type of circulatory system do arthropods have?
Open Circulatory systems
What is the term used to describe in which blood (interstitial fluid) is in direct contact with bodily fluids?
Open Circulatory System
In an Arthropod open circulatory system blood flows through a XXXXXX XXXXXXX and into spaces called XXXXXXXX where exchange occurs?
Dorsal Vessel/sinuses
WHat type of circulatory system do annelids such as earthworms use?
Closed circulatory systems
What is the term used to describe a system that delivers materials to cells that are not in direct contact with the external environment?
Closed circulatory system
In a closed circulatory system were is blood confined to?
Blood Vessels
WHat functions as a heart in a closed circulatory system?
Dorsal Vessels
What is the term used to describe Five pairs of vessels that connect the dorsal vessel to the ventral vessels and functions as additional pumps?
Aortic Loops
WHat does earthworm blood lack?
Red Blood Cells
Oxygentated blood is pumped from the left ventrical to the XXXXXXXX in humans?
What do the arteries branch into?
WHat do the Arterioles eventually turn into?
Exchange of gases, nurtients, and cellular waste products occurs via diffusion across XXXXXXXX walls.
The capillaries converge into XXXXXX, and eventually into XXXXXXX, leading deoxygenated blood through the inferior and superior vena cava back towards the heart?
Deoxygenated blood enters through the XXXXXXXX XXXXXX of the heart.
Right Atrium
Oxygentated blood returns to the heart via the XXXXXXXX XXXX to enter the XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX, which sends the blood to the XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX.
Pulmonary vein/Left Atrium/Left Ventricle
The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated to to the XXXXXXX?
The left side of the heart pumps oxygentated blood to the XXXXXXXX?
What is the term used to describe blood pumped to the lungs?
pulmonary circulation
What is the term used to describe blood pumped throughout the body?
Systemic Circulation
What are the two upper chambers of the heart called?
WHat are the two lower chambers of the heart called?
WHat are the three types of blood vessels?
1. Arteries 2. Veins 3. Capillaries
What is the term used to describe thick-walled, muscular, elastic vessels that transport oxygenated blood away from the heart?
What is the term used to describe relatively thinly walled, inelastic vessels that conduct deoxygenated blood towards the heart.
What is the term used to describe very thinned wall structure used for circulation, composed of a single layer of endothelial cells accross which respiratory gases, nutrients, enzymes, hormones and wastes can readily diffuse.
What is the term used to describe the secondary circulatory system distinct from the cardiovascular circulation?
Lymphatic system
What is the term used to describe swellings along lymph vessels containing phagocytic cells that filter the lymph, removing and destroying foreign particles and pathogens?
Lymph nodes
On Average how many liters of blood does the human body contain?
4-6 liters
Blood has what percentage of liquid, and what percentage of cellular components?
WHat are the cellular components of blood?(3)
1. Erythrocytes 2. Leukocytes 3. Platlets
What is the term used to describe the oxygen-carrying component of blood?
Erythrocytes (red Blood Cell)
How many molecules of hemoglobin does an erythrocyte contain?
250 million
What is the term used to describe when a hemoglobin binds to an oxygen?
How are erythrocytes formed?
Stem cells in the bone marrow
What organelles do erythrocytes lack? (3)
1. Nucleii 2. Mitochondria 3. Membraneous organelles
What is the term used to describe a large cell with protective functions that can phagocytize matter and organisms such as bacteria?
What is the term used to describe a stationary leukocyte that has migrated from blood tissue?
Another white blood cell that is involved in immune response and the production of antibodies (B cells) or cytolysis of infected cells (T cells)?
What is the term used to describe cell fragments that lack nuceii and are involved in clot formation?
What is the term used to describe the material that transports nutrients and O2 to the tissue and wastes and CO2 from the tissue?
What is the term used to describe the main component of the immune system?
What transports Oxygen throughout the circulatory system?
What molecule within the erythrocytes bind to Oxygen?
Where are amino acids and simple sugars absorbed into the bloodstream?
Intestinal cappilaries
What diffuse into capillaries from surrounding cells, and are delivered to excretory organs?
Waste Products
When platlets come into contact with XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX of a damaged cell they release a chemical that causes neighboring platlets to adhere to one another.
Exposed Collagen
What is the term used to describe when neighboring platelets adhere to one another?
Platelet Plug
What is the term used to define a clotting factor released by both the platelets and damaged tissue?
What is the term used to describe the product of thromboplastin, with the aid of its cofactors (calcium and vitamin K), converts the inactive plasma protein XXXXXXXXXXX to its active form?
What converts fibrinogen into fibrin?
Threads of XXXXXX coat the damaged area and trap blood cells to form a clot.
What is the term used to describe the production of antibodies?
Humoral immunity
WHat is the term used to describe cells that combat fungal and viral infections?
Cell-Mediated immunity
WHat are the two specific defense mechanism that are composed of the immune system?
1. Humoral Immunity 2. Cell-Mediated Immunity
WHat are responsible for both the humoral immunity and the cell-mediated immunity mechanisms?
WHat is the term used to describe a nonself foreign invader in the human body?
What are antibodies also commonly called?
WHat is the term used to describe complex proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens and trigger the immune system to remove them?
WHat are the two mechanisms of attack for antibodies?
1. Attract other cells to phagocytize the antigen 2. Cause antigens to clump together and form large insoluble complexes facilitating their removal by phagocytic cells.
WHat is the term used to describe the production of antibodies during an immune response?
Active immunity
WHat is one way active immunity can be conferred artificially?
WHat is the term used to describe transfer of antibodies produced by another individual or organism?
Passive immunity
WHat are the five non-specific defense mechanisms against foreign materials?
1. Skin 2. Mucus-coated epithelia 3. Macrophages 4. inflammatory response 5. interferons
WHat is the term used to describe a physical barrier against bacterial invasion.
WHat is the term used to describe passages that are lined with a ciliated substance that filters and traps foreign substances?
Mucus-Coated epithelia
WHat is the term used to describe a response initiated by the body in response to physical damage?
Inflammotory response
WHat is the term used to describe a substance that causes blood vessels to dialate thereby increasing bloodflow to the damaged region?
WHat is the term used to describe a cell that is attracted to an injury site that phagocytize antigenic material?
WHat is the term used to describe a secondary symptom usually accompanied by an inflammatory response?
WHat is the term used to describe a protein produced by cells under viral attack, they diffuse into other cells where they help prevent spread of a virus?
WHat is the term used to describe an inappropriate response to certain foods and pollen which can cause the body to form antibodies and release histamine?
Allergic Reactions
What blood type is considered the universal reciepient?
Blood type AB
What blood type is considered the universal donor?
Blood type O
Besides blood type ABO, what is another important factor when looking at blood types?
RH factor
WHat is the term used to describe if a woman carries an RH+ fetus while she is an RH- blood type her RH antibodies may cross the placenta and destroy her babys' RH+ red blood cells, causing severe anemia for the baby.
Erythroblastosis Fetalis
WHat type of antibodies can ONLY cross the placenta?
RH antibodies
Exocrine glands such as the gall bladder create substances that are transported in what?
What is an example of an exocrine gland?
Gall Bladder
What are three examples of glands that synthesize and/or secrete hormones?
Thyroid, testes, ovaries
The specificity of hormonal action is usually determined by the presence of specific XXXXXXXXXXX on or in the target cell.
Where are the adrenal glands located?
On top of the kidneys
What classes of molecules which include cortisol and cortisone are involved in glucose regulation and protein metabolism?
Glucocorticoids raise blood glucose levels by promoting XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX and decreasing XXXXXXX XXXXXXX.
Protein breakdown/Protein Synthesis
What is the function of a glucocorticoids?
Raise blood glucose levels
What is an example of a mineralcorticoid?
What is the function of mineralcorticoids? (2)
1. Regulate plasma levels of sodium and potassium 2. Regulate the total cellular water volume
The adrenal cortex secretes small amounts of XXXXXXXX?
Excess production of aldosterone results in ...(2)
1. Retention of water 2. Hypertension
Where are most male sex hormones produced?
What hormone causes an increase in the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue, causing a rise in blood glucose levels and an increase in basal metabolic rate?
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are also called XXXXXX?
WHat hormone promotes bone and muscle growth in both males and females?
Growth Hormone
What part of the pituitary gland synthesizes both direct and tropic hormones?
Anterior Pituitary
What hormone stimulates the adrenal cortext to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotrophin release factor?
Adrenalcorticotropic Hormone
WHat hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormone including thyroxin?
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
WHat hormone in females stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum, and in males stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to synthesize testosterone?
Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
WHat hormone in Females causes the maturation of ovarian follicles which begin secreting estrogen, and in males stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules and sperm production?
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
What Hormone secreted by the intermediate lobe of the pituitary, in mammals the function is unclear but in frogs causes darkening of the skin via induced dispersion of molecules of pigment?
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
What part of the pituitary gland stores hormones?
What hormones does the posterior pituitary Store?
1. Oxytocin 2. ADH
What hormone is secreted during child-birth, increasing the strength and frequency of uterine contractions, the secretion of this hormone also is induced by suckling and stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands?
WHat hormone increases the permeability of the nephron's collecting duct to water, thereby promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume?
ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone)
What organ is part of the forebrain and is located directly above the pituitary gland?
Neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus synthesize what two hormones?
1. Oxytocin 2. ADH
What is the structure that is a bi-lobed structure located on the ventral surface of the trachea?
WHat hormones are necessary for the growth and neurological development in children, they also increase the rate of metabolism throughout the body?
Thyroid Hormones
WHat is the medical condition called when thyroid hormones are undersecreted or not secreted at all which result in a slowed heart rate and respitory rate, fatigue, cold intolerance, and weight gain?
WHat is the medical term for hypothyroidism in newborn infants, it is characterized by mental retardation and short stature?
WHat is the medical condition called when the thyroid gland is overstimulated resulting in the oversecretion of thyroid hormones?
Are growth hormones glucocorticoids, and epinephrine capable of increasing plasma glucose?
The pancreas is both an XXXXXXXX organ and an XXXXXXXX organ.
What are the four small pea-shaped structures embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid?
Parathyroid glands
What does PTH do?
Raises Ca2+ concentrations in the body
What is the function of calcitonin?
Decreases Ca2+ concentrations in the body
What is the function of renin and aldosterone created in the kidneys?
Restore blood volumes when they fall
Ingested food stimulates the stomach to release the hormone XXXXXX?
What is the function of gastrin?
stimulates glands to secrete HCl in response to food in the stomach
What hormone is secreted when acidic food enters the small intestine from the stomach?
What hormone is involved in the digestion of fats?
What tiny gland is located at the base of the brain that secretes melatonin?
Pineal Gland
Hormones are classified based on their chemical structure into two major groups, what are those groups?
1. Peptide Hormones 2. Steroid Hormones
What are two characteristics of peptide hormones?
1. Interact with surface receptors 2. Generally act via secondary messengers
What are two characteristics of steroid Hormones?
1. Intracellular receptors 2. Hormone/receptor binding to DNA promotes transcription of specific genes
Neurons convert stimuli into XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX thats are conducted through the nervous system.
Electrochemical signals
What is the term used to describe cytoplasmic extensions that recieve information and transmit it toward the cell body?
The XXXXXXX XXXX contains the nucleus and controls the metabolic activity of the neuron.
Cell Body
What cells produced myelin?
Glial Cells
What are the ends of axons called?
Synaptic Teminals
WHat si the term used to define the gap between the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites of another cell?
What is the term used to describe when a neuron cannot initiate another action potential?
Refractory Period
What two characteristics influence the speed of an action potential in an axon?
1. Diameter of the Axon 2. How heavily myelated it is. More of both increases the speed of the action potential
What drug blocks the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors so that acetylcholine is unable to interact with the receptor. This results in paralysis by blocking nerve impulses to muscles.
What toxin prevents the release of acetylcholine from the pre-synaptic membrane and also results in paralysis.
Botulism toxin
WHat drugs are used as nerve gases and in the insecticide Parathion. This drug inhibits the activityof the acyetocholinesterase enzyme, and no coordinated muscle contractions can take place?
WHat neurons are sensory neurons?
Afferent Neurons
What neurons are motor neurons?
efferent neurons
What neurons participates only in linking sensory and motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord?
What is the term used to describe bundles of axons covered with connective tissues?
What is the term used to describe a network of nerve fibers?
What is the term used to describe a cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the periphery?
What is the term used to describe a cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the central nervous system?
What are the two major systems of the nervous system?
1. Central Nervous System 2. Peripheral Nervous System
What does the central nervous system consist of? (2)
1. Brain 2. Spinal Cord
What is the term used to describe a mass of neurons that reside in the skull responsible for interpreting sensory information and cognitive function?
What are the three parts of the brain?
1. Forebrain 2. Midbrain 3. Hindbrain
What is the term used to describe highly convuluted grey matter that can be seen on the surface of the brain located in the forebrain?
Cerebral Cortex
What part of the brain is important for memory and creative thought?
Cerebral Cortex
What is the term used to describe the center for reception and integration of olfactory input?
olfactory bulb
What part of the brain contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus?
What is the term used to describe a relay and integration center for the spinal cord and cerebral cortex?
What is the term used to describe the area of the brain that control visceral functions such as hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, blood pressure, and temperature regulation?
What is the term used to describe a relay center for visual and auditory impulses, and also plays a role in motor control?
What are the three components of the hindbrain?
1. Cerebellum 2. the pons 3. The medulla
What is the term used to describe the part of the hindbrain that helps to modulate motor impulses initiated by the cerebral cortex, and is important in the maintenance of balance, hand-eye coordination, and timing of rapid movements?
What is the term used to describe a relay center to allow the cortex to communicate with the cerebellum?
What is the term used to describe the area of the hindbrain that controls many vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and gastrointestinal activity?
Together the midbrain, pons, and medulla constitute the XXXXXXX?
Brain stem
What is the term used to describe an elongated extension of the brain which acts as the conduit for sensory information to the brain and motor function from the brain?
Spinal Cord
Were does sensory information enter the spinal cord?
Dorsal Horn
Where does motor information exit the spinal cord?
Ventral Horn
What are the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
1. Somatic 2. Autonomic
What is the term used to describe the part of the nervous system that innervates skeletal muscles and is responsible for voluntary movement?
Somatic Nervous System
What is the term used to describe the regulator of the bodies internal environment withou the aid of consious control?
Autonomic Nervous System
What muscle tissues does the autonomic nervous system innervate?
1. Cardiac muscle 2. Smooth muscle
What are the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?
1. Sympathetic 2. Parasympathetic
What is the sympathetic nervous system responsible for?
Flight or Fight responses
What is the parasympathetic nervous system responsible for? (2)
1. Conserve Energy 2. Restore body to resting activity levels
What is the primary neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic nervous system?
What is the primary neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system?
What is the thick opaque layer of the eye called? AKA the white of the eye?
What is the layer beneath the sclera of the eye called? It helps to supply the retina with blood.
What is the term used to describe the innermost area of the eye, which contains photoreceptors to detect light?
What is the term used to describe the transparent structure at the front of the eye that bends and focuses light rays?
In the eye, this muscle monitors light intensity and is responsible for letting certain amounts of light into the eye?
What muscle in the human eye focuses images onto the retina?
Ciliary Muscle
Within the retina there are XXXXXXXXXXX that transduce light into action potentials.
What photoreceptor responds to high-intensity illumination and are sensitive to color?
WHat photoreceptor detects low intensity illumination and is important for night vision?
WHat is the point called in which the optic nerve exits the eye?
blind spot
What is the term used to describe a condition which occurs when distant objects seem blurred?
Myopia (Nearsightedness)
What is the term used to describe when the image is focused behind the retina and makes images up close appear blurred?
Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
What is the term used to describe an irregulary shaped cornea?
What is the term used to describe when the lens becomes opaque; light cannot enter the eye and blindness results?
What is the term used to describe an increase of pressure in the eye due to the blocking of the outflow of the aqueous humor?
What three regions of the ear do sound waves pass as they enter the ear?
1. Outer Ear 2. Auditory Canal 3. Tympanic membrane
WHat does the inner ear consist of, these structures are involved in maintaining equilibrium? (2)
1. Cochlea
2. Vestibular Apparatus
What type of nervous system do protazoans possess?
They do not possess a nervous system!
What type of nervous system do cnidarians possess?
Nerve Net
What type of nervous system does annelida possess?
primitive central nervous system
What type of nervous system do arthropoda possess?
Brains with specialized sense organs
What two types of organisms have every cell in contact with the external environment and respitory gases can be exchanged between the cell and the environment by simple diffusion through the cell membrane? (2)
Protozoa & Hydra
Do arthropods require a carrier for oxygen?
Gas exchange between the lungs and the circulatory system occurs accross the very thin walls of the XXXXXXXXX, which are air-filled sacs at the terminals of the airway branches.
What is ventilation regulated by?
WHere are the neurons that regulate ventilation located?
Medulla Oblongata
A dense network of minute blood vessels called the XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX surround the alveoli, gas exchange occurs by diffusion.
Pulmonary Capillaries
Individual muscle fibers generally exhibit an XXX-XX-XXXX response; only a stimulus above a minimum value called the XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX can elicit contraction.
All-or-none/threshold value
The strength of contraction of the entire muscle can be increased by XXXXXXXXXXX more muscle fibers.
What is the term used to define the response of a single muscle fiber to a brief stimulus at or above the threshold stimulus, and consists of a latent period, a contraction period, and a relaxation period.
Simple twitch
What is the term used to define the time between stimulation and the onset of contraction?
Latent Period
What is the term used to define the brief relaxation period in which the muscle is unresponsive to a stimulus?
absolute refractory period
What is the term used to define a state of partial contraction?
WHat type of muscle is responsible for involuntary actions?
Smooth muscle
Smooth muscles lack the XXXXXXXXXXX of the skeletal muscles.
What molecule maintains oxygen supplies in the muscles?
Flagella achieve movement by means of the XXXXXX XXXX, a thrusting movement generated by the sliding action of microtubules.
Power stroke
Return of the cilium or flagellum to its original position is termed the XXXXXXX XXXXXX.
Recover Stroke
Ameoba extend XXXXXXXXX for locomotion; the advancing cell membrane extends forward, allowing the cell to move.
What is an example organism of the groups called flatworms?
Earthworms advance principally by the action of muscles located on a XXXXXXXXX XXXXXX.
Hydrostatic Skeleton
What is the term used to define a hard skeleton that covers all muscles and organs of some invertebrates?
What class of organisms principally have exoskeletons?
What are insect exoskeletons composed of?
WHile offering protection to an organism, exoskeletons limit an organisms XXXXXXXXXXX.
WHat is required for organisms with an exoskeleton to permit growth?
What is the term used to define a skeleton within the tissue of an organism?
What is the term used to define a type of connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone?
What is the term used to define a type of connective tissue that has the ability to withstand physical stress?
What are the two basic types of bone?
1. Compact Bone 2. Spongy Bone
What is the term used to define a dense type of bone that does not appear to have any cavities when viewed with the naked eye?
Compact Bone
What is the term used to define a less dense bone that has cavities within?
Spongy Bone
What type of bone marrow is involved in red blood cell formation?
Red Marrow
What is the term used to define a cell found in bone tissue that builds bone?
What is the term used to define large nucleated cells involved in destroying and reabsorbing bone?
What is the term used to define when cartilidge is replaced by bone?
endochondral ossification
What is the term used to define when connective tissue is transformed and replaced by bone?
intramembraneous ossification
What is the term used to define the basic framework of the body, consisting of the skull, vertabral column, and rib cage?
Axial Skeleton
Bones that do move relative to one another are held together by XXXXXX XXXXXX, and are additionally supported and strengthened by XXXXXX?
Movable joints/Ligaments
What is the term used to define bone-to-bone connectors?
The point of attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone is called the XXXXXXXX?
Animals that are unable to synthesize their own nutrients (Organic Compounds) are XXXXXXXX?
What is the term used to define consists of the degredation of large molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used directly by cells?
What type of digestion occurs within the cell?
Intracellular digestion
WHat type of digestion occurs outside the cell, within a lumen or tract?
Extracellular digestion
In unicellular organisms how is food captured?
What organelle contains digestive enzymes that fuse with a food vacuole and aids in digestion?
Where are solid wastes expelled in a unicellular organism?
Anal Pore
In annelids, what is the part of the digestive tract used to store food?
In annelids, what is the part of the digestive tract used to grind food?
In annelids, what is the part of the digestive tract contains a large dorsal fold (Typholosole) to provide increased surface area for digestion and absorption?
In arthropods, what glands are used to improve food digestion?
Salivary Glands
In humans were does mechanical and chemical digestion of food begin?
Oral Cavity (or Mouth)
In human digestion, what enzyme allows humans to hydrolize starch to maltose?
Salivary Amylase
In humans what is the term used to define a large, muscular organ located in the upper abdomen, that stores and partially digests food?
This organelle present in the stomach called the XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX, secretes XXXXXXXXX which protects the stomach lining from harshly acidic mucus?
Gastric Mucosa/mucus
The Gastric Mucosa also secretes an enzyme called XXXXXXX, which is a protein-hydrolyzing enzyme; HCl, which kills bacteria, dissolves the intracellular "glue" holding food particles together, and activates certain proteins.
In human digestion, the churning of the stomach produces an acidic, semi-fluid mixture of partially digested food known as XXXXXX?
In human digestion, chyme passes into the first segment of the small intestine known as the XXXXXXXXX, through the XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX.
Duodenum/pyloric sphincter
In human digestion, the chemical digestion of food is completed in the XXXXXXXX XXXXXXX?
Small intestine
In humans, what are the three sections of the small intestine?
1. The Duodenum 2. The Jejunum 3. The Ileum
In humans, the small intestine is highly adapted to XXXXXXX?
In humans, the small intestine contains numerous finger-like projections called XXXXXXXX. The capillaries and lacteals allow amino acids and monosaccharides to pass through into the capillary.
In human digestion in the small intestine the intestinal mucose secretes lipases, this is for what?
Fat Digestion
In human digestion in the small intestine the intestinal mucose secretes aminopeptidases, this is for what?
Polypeptide digestion
In human digestion in the small intestine the intestinal mucose secretes disaccharidases, this is for what?
Digestion of lactose, maltose, and sucrose
WHat is the term used to define a compound produced in the liver that emulsifies fats, breaking down large globules into small droplets?
WHat is the term used to define the enzyme produced in the pancreas that aids in carbohydrate digestion?
WHat is the term used to define the enzyme produced in the pancreas that aids in protein digestion?
WHat is the term used to define the enzyme produced in the pancreas that aids in fat digestion?
WHat is the term used to define a structure in the large intestine that provides storage for feces prior to elimination through the anus?
In plants, what is the principal storage food molecule?
WHat is the term used to define the removal of metabolic wastes produced in the body?
WHat is the term used to define the removal of indigestible material?
WHat does Aerobic respiration lead to the production of? (2)
1. CO2 2. Water
Deanimation of amino acids in the liver leads to the production of XXXXXXXXX XXXXX.
Nitrogenous Wastes
All metabolic processes lead to the production of XXXXXX XXXXX which must be excreted by the kidneys.
Mineral Salts
WHat is the term used to define a special excretory organ present in protozoans and cnidarians that is specialized for water excretion by active transport?
Contractile Vacuole
In earthworms, two pairs of XXXXXXXX in each body segment excrete water, mineral salts, and nitrogenous wastes in the form of Urea.
In athropods, nitrogenous wastes are excreted in the form of solid XXXXX XXXXX crystals?
Uric Acid
Why do arthropods dispose of their wastes in a solid form?
Water Conservation
What are the principle organs of excretion in humans? (4)
1. lungs 2. liver 3. skin 4. kidneys
In humans, what do sweat glands in the skin excrete? (2)
1. Water 2. Dissolved Salts
What is one of the main reasons why humans prespire?
Regulate body temperature
What are the main functions in the kidneys with respect to excretion in humans? (3)
1. Maintain osmolarity in the blood 2. excrete waste products and toxic chemicals 3. conserve glucose, salt and water
In humans, the kidneys regulate the concentration of salt and water in the blood through the formation and excretion of XXXXXX.
In humans, where are the kidneys located?
Behind the stomach and liver
In humans, the kidneys are composed of approximately 1 million units called XXXXXX.
In humans, the kindneys are divided into three regions, what are those regions?
1. Outer Cortex 2. Inner Medulla 2. Inner Medulla
In human kidneys, the glomerulus is a XXXXXXX-XXXXXX structure, small molecules dissolved in fluids will pass through the glomerous, while large molecules like red blood cells and proteins will not.
In human kidneys, the main function of the nephron is to maintain the XXXXXXXXXXXX's XXXXXXXX concentration.
Bloodstream's solute
Are fixed action patterns likely to be modified by learning?
Daily cycles of behavior are called XXXXXX XXXXXXX?
Circadian rythyms
If the stimulus is no longer regularly applied, and the response tends to recover over time, this is referred to as XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX?
Spontaneous Recovery
More complex reflex patterns involve neural integration at higher levels which include the XXXXXXXX or even the XXXXXXXXX.
WHat is an example of a fixed action pattern?
A female birds desire to maintain an egg of the same species
What is the term used to define a period in which sight will not develop correctly if light is not presented during this period?
Visual Critial Period
What is the term used to define a substance secreted by animals that influence the behavior of other members of the same species?
What is the term used to define the association of a normally autonomic or visceral response with an environmental stimulus?
Conditional Reflex
What is the term used to define the gradual elimination of conditional responses in the absense of reinforcement?
What is the term used to define the product of conditioning experience?
Conditioned Reflex
What is the term used to define the recovery of the conditioned response after extinction?
Spontaneous Recovery
What is the term used to define the social hierarchy?
Pecking order
What is the term used to describe a process in which environmental patterns or objects presented to a developing organism during a brief critical period in early life, become permanently accepted as an element of their behavioral environment and included in an animals behavioral response?
Where is a simple reflex controlled?
Spinal chord
XXXXXXXXX conditioning involves conditioning responses to stimuli with the use of a reward or reinforcement.
What are the two components of an organisms environment?
What is the term used to define the physical environment?
What is the term used to define the living environment?
What is the term used to define a group of organisms of the same species living together in a given location?
What is the term used to define any group of similiar organisms that are capable of reproducing fertile offspring?
What is the term used to define a population consisting of different plants and animal species interacting with each other in a given environment?
What is the term used to define an area that includes the community and the environment?
What is the term used to define an area that includes all portions of the planet which support life, the atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere?
What is the term used to define a layer in the water where light can penetrate, and is where all photosynthetic life takes place?
photic zone
What is the term used to define a zone in the hydrosphere were only animal life and heterotropic life exist, that is absent of light.
aphotic zone
What is the term used to describe what an organism eats, where and how it obtains food, what climatic factors it can tolerate and what are optimal, the nature of its parasites and predators, where and how it reproduces, etc.
No two species can occupy the same XXXXXXX?
The niche is so specific that a XXXXXXXX can be identified by the niche it occupies?
What is the term used to define organisms that synthesize their own carbon compounds?
What is the term used to define organisms that rely on an external source for organic carbon compounds?
XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXX capable of digesting cellulose inhabit the digestive tracts of herbivores and allow the breakdown and utilization of cellulose.
Symbiotic Bacteria
What are the four major types of interspecific interactions?
1. Symbiosis 2. Predation 3. Saprophytism 4. Scavenging
What is the term used to define when one or both organisms cannot survive without the other?
Obligate Symbiosis
What is the term used to define a symbiosis event when one organism is benefited by the association and the other is not affected?
What is the term used to define a symbiosis event in which both organisms derive some benefit?
What is the term used to define a symbiosis event when one organism benefits at the expense of another?
What is the term used to define an organism that decomposes dead organic material externally and absorbs the nutrients, they constitute a vital link in the cycling of material in an ecosystem?
What is the term used to define an organism which consumes dead animals?
What is the term used to define when individuals of different species compete for the same resource in an ecosystem.
Interspecific Competition
What is the term used to define when individuals of the same species compete for the same resource in an ecosystem.
Intraspecific Competition
What is the term used to define an adaptation for maintaining internal osmolarity and conserving water?
What is the term used to define a cold-blooded animal that maintains their internal body temperature close to that of their surroundings?
What is the term used to define warm-blooded animals that are required to keep their body temperature at a constant level?
The complex pathways involved in the transfer of energy through the living components of the ecosystem (biotic community) may be mapped in the form of a XXXXXXX XXXXXXX?
Food Chain or Food Web
In a food chain, what are the primary producers? (2)
Autotrophic green plants/Chemosynthetic Bacteria
XXXXXXXX always form the initial step in any food chain?
XXXXXXXXX consumers are animals that consume green plants.
XXXXXXXX consumers are animals that consume the primary consumers?
What is the term used to define saprophytic organisms and organisms of decay, which include bacteria and fungi?
The greater number of XXXXXXXXXX in a community food web, the more stable the community.
Without a constant input of energy from the XXXXX, an ecosytem would soon run down?
According to the second law of thermodynamics, every energy transfer among trophic levels results in a XXXXXX of energy. The majority of this energy is converted into heat.
Nitrogen is an essential building block for XXXXXXX XXXXXXXX and XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX which are building blocks for all living things.
Amino Acids/Nucleic Acids
What type of nitrogen is chemically inert and cannot be used by most organisms?
Elemental Nitrogen(N2)
In nitrogen cycling, what two process convert elemental nitrogen to useable, soluble nitrates?
Lightning/nitrogen-fixing bacteria
In the carbon cycle, what organisms use gaseous CO2? What process is it used for?
Plants use it to produce glucose via photosynthesis
In the carbon cycle, what do plants use glucose for? (3)
To make starch, proteins, and fat
A stable ecosystem requires a constant XXXXX XXXXXXX and a living system incorporating this XXXXX into organic compounds?
Energy Source/Energy
XXXXXXX of materials between the living system and its environment is critical.
What is the term used to define the stable, living part of the ecosystem described above in which populations exist in balance with each other and the environment?
Climax Community
What is the term used to define the orderly process by which one biotic community replaces or succeeds another until a climax community is established?
Ecological Succession
What is the term used to define a species that exerts control over other species that are present?
Dominant Species
What is the term used to define a species that has a disproportionate effect on its environment relative to its biomass?
Keystone Species
During ecological succession why do changes occur?
Each community that establishes itself changes the environment, making it more unfavorable for itself and more favorable for the community that is to succeed it.
What type of community is the end-stage of ecological succession, or when there is an ecological steady state?
Climax Community
It is important to note that the dominant species of a climax community depends on XXXXX XXXXXXX.
Physical Factors
Each geographic region is inhabited by a distinct community called a XXXXXXX.
Land biomes are characterized and named according to the XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX of that region.
Climax Vegetation
Climax vegetation of a region determines the XXXXXXX XXXXXXX population.
Climax Animal
What type of biome receives less than 10 inches of rainfall a year, and the growing season is restricted to those times of rainfall?
Desert Biomes
What type of biome recieves around 10-30 inches of rainfall a year, and are inhabited by herbiverous mammals that have developed long legs and in many cases hoofed feet. EX: East Prairies of the rockies.
Grassland Biome
What type of biomes are jungles characterized by high temperatures and torrential rain? The climax community consists of dense growth of vegetation that does not shed its leaves.
Tropical Rain Forest Biome
What type of biomes are characterized by having cold winters and warm summers and moderate rainfall? Trees that inhabit this biome are maples, beech, oaks and willows, these trees shed their leaves during the cold winter months. EX: Northeastern, and Central Eastern US.
Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome
What type of biomes are characterized by being cold and dry and inhabited by fir, pine, and spruce trees. These biomes are found in the Northern part of the US and Southern Canada.
Temperate Coniferous Forest Biome
What type of biomes are characterized by recieving less rainfall than temperate forests, have long winters, and are inhabited by a single coniferous tree: The Spruce. The cheif animal inhabitant is the moose, however black bear, wolf and some other birds are found there. These biomes exist in the extreme northern parts of Canada and Russia.
Taiga Biome
What type of biomes are characterized by by a treeless, frozen plain found between the taiga land and the Northern Ice-Sheet. Lichens, moss, polar bears, musk oxen, and arctic hens are found here.
Tundra Biomes
What type of biomes are characterized by a frozen area with no vegetation and terrestrial animals.
Polar Region
Biomes can also be characterized by XXXXXXXX?
As much as 90% of the earth's XXXXX and XXXXXX production takes place in the XXXX?
WHat are the two types of major aquatic biomes?
What zone of a marine biome is characterized by the region exposed to low tides which undergoes variations in temperature and periods of dryness? Populations included in this zone are algae, sponge, clams, snails, sea urchins, fish and crabs.
Intertidal Zone
What zone of a marine biome is characterized by the region on the continental shelf which contains ocean area with depths up to 600 feet and extends several hundred miles from shore. Populations include algae, crab, crustacea, and many different species of fish.
Littoral Zone
What zone of a marine biome is typical of the open seas and can be divided into photic and aphotic zones.
Pelagic Zone
WHat is the term used to describe part of the marine biome within the pelagic zone which is the sunlit layer of the open sea extending to a depth of 250-600 feet.
Photic Zone
WHat is the term used to describe part of the marine biome within the pelagic zone that recieves no light?
Aphotic Zone
What are the three basic ways that freshwater biomes differ from saltwater biomes?
1. Freshwater is hypotonic 2. Swift Currents Exist 3. Temperature can vary considerably
What is the hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks, in order from broad to concise?
XXXXXX are generally not considered living organisms because they cannot function outside of a hosts cell and are dependent upon the host's reproductive machinery to replicate.
What is the term used to define a virus which exclusively infects bacteria?
What is a represenative organism of the phylum porifera?
What is a represenative organism of the phylum Cnidarians?
EX: hydra, jellyfish, sea anenome, coral
What is a represenative organism of the phylum Platyhelminthes?
What is a represenative organism of the phylum Nemotoda?
Round Worms, hookworms, trichina, free-living soil Nematodes
What is a represenative organism of the phylum Annelida?
Segmented worms, earthworms, leeches
What is a represenative organism of the phylum Mollusca?
Clams, Snails, Squids
What is a represenative organism group of the phylum Arthropoda?
Insects, arachnids, crustaceans
What is a represenative organism of the phylum Echinoderms?
Starfish, Sea Urchins
What is a represenative organism of the phylum Chordates?
Humans, anything with a notochord at some stage of embryonic development.
What are the five classes of chordates?
What is the term used to define a group of mammals that lays leathery eggs, have horny bills, and milk glands with numerous openings but no nipples?
What is the term used to define a group of mammals that have embryos that develope fully in the uterus?
Placental Mammals
What are the six examples of evolution?
Fossil Record/Comparative Anatomy/Comparative Embryology/Comparative Biochemistry/Vestigal Structures/Geographic barrier analysis
What is the term used to define the process in which minerals replace cells of an organism?
What is the term used to define structures that have the same basic anatomical features and evolutionary origins?
Homologous Structures
What is the term used to define structures that have similiar functions but have different evolutionary origins and entirely different patterns of development?
Analogous Structures
What type of structures cannot be used for the basis of classification?
Analogous Structures
The stages of development of the XXXXXXX resemble the stages in an organism's evolutionary history.
What is the term used to define a structure that appears to have no function but apparently had some ancestral function?
Vestigal Structure
What is the term used to define speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated due to geographic changes or social changes?
Allopatric Speciation, or geographic speciation
What is the term used to define a field of study that constructs and studies evolutionary relationships?
What is the term used to define a technique used to classify organisms based on their phylogenetic relationship?
Only changes in the XXXX of sex cells can be XXXXX?
What are the two main sources of variation in a population?
Mutations/Natural Selection
What is the term used to define all members of a particular species inhabiting a given location?
What is the term used to define the sum of all the total alleles for any given trait in a population?
Gene Pool
What are the conditions needed for the Hardy-Weinberg Principle to be valid? (5)
1. The population is very large. 2. There are no mutations that affect the gene pool. 3. Mating between individuals in a population is random. 4. There is no net migration of individuals into or out of the population 5. The genes in the population are all equally successful at reproducing.
Do such idealized Hardy-Weinberg conditions exist in nature?
What is the term used to define when mates are not chosen randomly?
Assortive Mating
What is the term used to define changes in the composition of the gene pool due to chance?
Genetic Drift
What is the term used to define when genetic drift is more profound usually in smaller populations?
Founder effect
What is the term used to define migration of individuals between populations, changing the composition of the gene pool?
Gene Flow
What is the term used to define creation of a new group of individuals who can interbreed freely with each other, but not members of the other species?
What is the term used to define a small local population?
If the gene pool within a species become sufficiently different so that two individuals cannot mate and produce fertile offspring, two different XXXXXXXX have developed.
What are six factors that lead to speciation?
1. Genetic Variation 2. Changes in the environment 3. Migration to new environments 4. adaptation to new environments 5. Natural Selection 6. Isolation
What is the term used to define the emergence of a number of lineages from a single ancestral species?
Adaptive Radiation
What is the term used to define when two different species evolve in a similiar way in a similiar environment?
Convergent Evolution
Is glycolysis an aerobic or anaerobic process?
What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
pyruvate decarboxylation, the citric acid (Krebs) cycle, and the electron transport chain
One molecule of glucose requires how many turns of the citric acid cycle?
2 cycles
How many ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are created in one turn of the citric acid cycle?
1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2
What are the four stages of the cell cycle?
g1, s, g2, m
In what phase of meiosis would one find a tetrad?
Prophase I
Name the different structures of the female reproductive tract.
ovary, oviduct (fallopian tube), uterus, cervix, vagina
Put in order the embryonic stages.
zygote, morula, blastula, gastrula, neurula
What structures arise from the ectoderm?
integument, lens of the eye, and nervous system
What structures arise from the mesoderm?
musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, connective tissue, excretory system, and gonads
What happens during the light cycle?
Light energy is used to produce ATP through photophosphorylation and photolysis (splitting of water), while forming 02 and NADPH.
What happens during the dark (Calvin) cycle?
ATP and NADPH formed during the light reaction are used to fix CO2 into organic material. This usually occurs during the day.
What molecule provides the reducing power needed during the synthesis of sugar?
What types of muscle are striated?
cardiac and skeletal muscle
Sequence the structures of the respiratory tract.
nares, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
Trace the path of blood flow throughout the body.
right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava
Which valve separates the right atrium and right ventricle?
tricuspid valve
Which valve separates the left atrium and left ventricle?
the mitral valve
What are the cellular components of blood?
erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets
Which proteins are essential for proper clotting?
thrombin and fibrin
What are the primary homeostatic organs in mammals?
kidneys, liver, large intestine, and skin
What are the three regions of the kidney?
pelvis, medulla, cortex
Where are amino acids, glucose and vitamins reabsorbed in the nephron?
the proximal convoluted tubule
Where in the loop of Henle does water passively diffuse out?
the descending limb
In which layer of the skin are sweat glands, sense organs, and blood vessels located?
in the dermis
Name all the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), lutienizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
What is the function of TSH?
it causes the thyroid to uptake iodine and produce thyroid hormone
Name the hormones synthesized by the posterior pituitary.
What two hormones are secreted by the ovaries?
estrogen and progesterone
What are the four phases of the menstrual cycle?
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, and menstruation
What is the function of a dendrite?
Conducts nerve impulses towards the cell body
What is the function of an axon?
Conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body
What is the composition of a myelin sheath?
In the CNS, it is composed of the membranes of oligodendrocyes and in the PNS, myelin is composed of the membranes of the Schwann cells.
What is the function of a sensory (afferent) neuron?
carries impulses from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord
What is the function of a motor (efferent) neuron?
transmits impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles or glands
What are the components of the middle ear?
tympanic membrane, malleus, incus and stapes
What are the components of the inner ear?
cochlea and organ of Corti
Which division of the nervous system inhibits division?
sympathetic divison
What are the three directly biological sources of CO2 in the environment?
respiration, photosynthesis, and decomposition of materials
Sort the levels of biological organization from smallest to largest.
Organism, Population, Community, Ecosytem, Biosphere
What are the characteristics of the population growth curve that occurs most often in nature?
Is is an S-shaped curve that plateus at a value known as K (the carrying capacity)
Which type of neuron serves as a link between motor and sensory neurons?
Interneurons (associate neurons)
What are the three stages of polypeptide synthesis?
initiation, elongation, and termination
What are the three types of base pair mutations that can occur during protein synthesis?
Substitutions, insertions, and deletions
Hydrostatic skeleton
the incompressible fluid in the flatworm's tissues
bristles in the lower part of each segment in segmented worms (annelids); they anchor earthworm temporarily to the earth while the other muscles push it ahead
Compact bone
dense bone, no apparent cavities when observed with naked eye; osteons (haversian systems) are its structural units
Osteons (Haversian Systems)
Structural units for compact bone; each haversian canal (central microscopic channel) surrounded by lamellae (concentric circles of calcium phosphate)
Spongy Bone
much less dense than compact bone; made of interconnecting spicules (trabeculae); cavities between the spicules filled with yellow or red bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow
inactive, infiltrated by adipose tissue; located in the cavities between the spicules in spongy bone
Red bone marrow
involved in blood cell formation; located in the cavities between the spicules in spongy bone
Make bone; synthesize and secrete the organic constituents of the bone matrix; once surrounded by the matrix they mature into osteocytes
Destroy bone; large, multinucleated cells involved in bone reabsorption (aka destruction)
Axial skeleton
skull; vertebral column; ribcage
Appendicular skeleton
pelvis; appendages
Origin (in regards to a bone)
proximal end in limb muscles, where the muscle attaches to stationary bone
Insertion (in regards to bone)
Distal end in limb muscles where muscle attaches to the bone that moves
Take me down the makeup of a muscle
muscle - muscle fibers (filaments) - myofibrils - sarcomeres
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
envelopes the myofibrils; is a modified endoplasmic reticulum; stores calcium ions
cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
the cell membrane of a muscle fiber; capable of propagating an action potential; connected to a system of transverse tubules (T system) that are perpendicular to the myofibrils
T system
system of transverse microtubules that run perpendicular to the myofibrils; provide channels for ion flow throughout the muscles; can also propagate an action potential
made of thin (actin molecules) and thick (organized bundles of myosin molecules) filaments
z-line of sarcomere
defines boundaries of sarcomere and anchors thin, actin filaments
m-line of sarcomere
mid-line of sarcomere
I-band of sarcomere
contains only thin actin filaments
H-zone of sarcomere
contains thick filaments of myosin only
Neuromuscular Junction
link between nerve terminal (synaptic bouton) and sarcolemma (muscle cell membrane) of muscle fiber
Path to fire a sarcomere
1) motor neuron fires (depolarizes) and releases neurotransmitters (acetylcholine) from nerve terminal 2) neruotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on the sarcolemma 3) if enought receptors are stimulated, permeability of sarcomere is altered and an action potential is generated 4) action potential is conducted along the sarcolemma and the T system to interior of muscle fiber 5) sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions into sarcoplasm 6) Ca2+ ions initiate contraction of sarcomere 7) actin and myosin slide past each other and sarcomere contracts!
Simple Twitch
response of a single muscle fiber to a brief stimulus at or above the threshold; has latent period, contraction period, relaxation period
Latent Period
time between stimulation and contraction onset; this is when the action potential is spreading along the sarcolemma and Ca2+ ions are released
when muscle fibers are exposed to very frequent stimuli and they do not fully relax, contractions combine and become stronger and more prolonged
when contractions become continuous because the stimuli are so frequent the muscle can not relax; if maintained, muscle will fatigue and weaken
state of partial contraction; muscles are never completely relaxed and maintain a state of partial contraction at all times
Skeletal muscle
responsible for voluntary movements; innervated my somatic nervous system; each fiber is multinucleated cell created by fusion of several mononucleated embryonic cells; striated (because of the actin and myosin filaments)
Smooth muscle
involuntary actions; innervated by autonomic nervous system; one centrally located nucleus; not striated like skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle
has characteristics of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers; like skeletal muscle has actin and myosin filaments in sarcomeres, so striated; like smooth muscle has only one or two centrally located nuclei (smooth only ever have one)
Creatine Phosphate and Arginine Phosphate
can be used as alternatives to ATP for energy; vertebrates and some invertebrates (esp. echinoderms) can store energy in creatine phosphate; invertebrates use arginine phosphate
Cnidarians - Digestion
use intracellular and extracellular digestion; tentacles bring food into mouth, release particles into cup-like sac, endodermal cells lining the gastrovascular cavity secrete enzymes, food reduced to small fragments, gastrodermal cells engulf nutrients, digestion completed intracellularly; undigested food expelled through mouth
Annalids - Digestion
have one way digestive tract with mouth and anus; mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop (to store food), gizzard (to grind food) , intestine (has typholosole, a large dorsal fold to provide increased surface area), anus
large dorsal fold in annelids in intestine to provide increased surface area for digestion and absorption
Anthropods - Digestion
similar digestive system to annelids but have jaws for chewing and salivary glands; mouth, esophagus, crop, gizzard, digestive glands in stomach, large intestines, rectum anus
Human digestive tract
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,pyloric sphincter, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine, anus (humans also have salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gall bladder)
Chemical digestion
begins with saliva secreted by salivary glands; is the enzymatic breakdown of macromolecules into smaller molecules
Salivary amylase
ptyalin, hydrolyzes starch to maltose
What do the human stomach glands secrete?
1) Pepsin = protein hydrolyzing enzyme 2) HCl = kills bacteria, dissolves intracellular "glue" holding food tissues together and activates certain proteins
acidic, semi-fluid mixture of partially digested food produced by the churning of the stomach
Pyloric sphincter
what chyme must pass through to enter duodenum
How does the small intestine maximize its surface area?
1) longer than 6m 2) villi = finger-like projections extending out of intestinal wall containing capillaries and lacteals (vessels of the lymphatic system, also absorb fatty acids and glycerol and reconvert them into fats)
finger-like projections extending out of small intestinal wall; contain capillaries and lacteals
located on villi in small intestine; vessels of the lymphatic system; absorb fatty acids and glycerol and reconvert them into fats
Where does most of the digestion occur?
Duodenum (first part of the small intestine)
Large intestine
1.5 meters long; absorbs salts and water that have not already been absorbed by small intestine
How do fungi acquire nutrients?
Secrete Enzymes that convert large molecules into smaller ones and then absorb the smaller molecules
Annelids - Excretion
CO2 excretion occurs directly through skin; nephridia is the excretory tube that excretes water, mineral salts, nitrogenous wastes (as urea)
excretory tube in annelids that excretes water, mineral salts, and nitrogeous wastes (as urea)
Anthropods - Excretion
CO2 released from tissues into tracheae and exit through spiracles; nitrogenous wastes excreted as solid uric crystals; mineral salts and uric acid accumulate in malphigian tubules and are transported to intestine to be expelled with solid waste
Malphigian Tubules
In Anthropods, where mineral salts and uric acid accumulate before they are transported to intestine to be expelled with solid waste
Liver's function in Excretion in Humans
processes nitrogenous wastes, blood pigment wastes and other chemicals; deaminizes amino acids which produces urea which is transported to the kidneys to be excreted
made of: Bowman's capsule (bulb that holds a special capillary bed called glomerulus), long coiled tubule (made of proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule)
Bowman's capsule
in a nephron in kidney; bulb that holds a special capillary bed called glomerulus
What are the three regions of the kidney?
Outer cortex, medulla, renal pelvis
Urine Formation - Filtration
blood pressure forces 20% of blood plasma entering glomerous to go through capillary walls and enter surrounding Bowman's capusule; only fluid and small solutes can enter nephron
Urine Formation - Secretion
nephron secretes acids, bases, ions (like potassium and phosphate) from interstitial fluid into filtrate by active and passive transport; these materials are secreted from peritubular capillaries to nephron tubule
Urine Formation - Reabsorption
essential substances are reabsorbed from filtrate (ex glucose, salts, amino acids, H2O); occurs primarily in proximal convoluted tubule; ACTIVE PROCESS; movement of these molecules is accompanied by the passive movement of H2O
Where does most of the reabsorption in urine formation occur?
In the proximal convoluted tubule
How does the nephron return nutrients, salts and water from filtrate to the body?
nephron has selectively permeable walls and maintains the osmolarity gradient which maintains the bloodstreams solute concentration
How does it maintain the osmolarity gradient?
selective permeability of tubules creates an osmolarity gradient in surrounding interstitial fluid, solutes exit and then reenter at different parts of nephron creating the osmolarity gradient; tissue osmolarity increases from cortex to inner medulla
How does the nephron form concentrated urine?
Because of the way the loop of Henle is anatomically arranged it creates a concentration gradient that allows for reabsorption of 99% of the filtrate in the collecting tubules
Fixed Action Patterns
complex, coordinated, innate behavioral responses to specific patterns of stimulation in the environment; elicited by releaser; unlikely to be modified by learning
stimulus that elicits fixed action pattern
Habit Family Hierarchy
a stimulus is usually associated with several possible responses, each response has a different probability of occurring; this orders these "stimulus - behavioral associations"; reward strengthens a specific behavioral response and raises its order in the hierarchy, punishment weakens a specific behavioral response and lowers its order in the hierarchy
Critical Period
specific time periods during an animal's early development when it is physiologically able to develop specific behavioral patterns; if the proper behavior pattern is not presented during this period, it will not properly develop
Visual Critical Period
If light is not present during this period, visual effectors will not develop properly
Reproductive Displays
found in all animals, are a variety of complex actions that function as signals in preparation for mating
Agonistic Displays
ex) dog display of appeasment when it wags its tail
Antagonistic Displays
ex) dog dircets its face straigth and raises its body
Releaser Pheromones
trigger a reversible behavioral change in the recipient; ex) sex-attractant pheromones are secreted by many animals; also secreted as alarm and toxic defensive substances
Primer Pheromones
produce long term behavioral and physiological alterations in recipient animals; ex) pheromones from male mice effect estrogen cycles of females; have also been shown to limit sexual reproduction in areas of high animal density; important esp. in ants, bees, termites because they regulate role determination and reproductive capacities
Biotic community
includes only the populations not the physical environment
soil or rock; determines the nature of plant and animal life in the soil
symbionts live together in an often permanent association; may not be mutually beneficial; 3 different types: commensalism, mutualism, parasitism
Obligatory symbiosis
one or both organisms can not survive without the other
one organism benefits from the association, the other is not affected
both organisms get some benefit
parasites that cling to exterior surface of host (use suckers or clamps)
Live within host
Chemosynthetic bacteria
carbohydrates manufactured from CO2 and H2O using the oxidation of chemical nutrients instead of sunlight as a source of energy
cold-blooded (most animals are); most of their heat energy escapes to the environment, body temp is close to surroundings; metabolism closely tied to body temp
warm blooded; adapted fat, hair, feathers to stop heat loss; maintain constant body temperatures that are higher than environmental temperatures; less dependent on environmental temp therefore can inhabit a wider range of environments
each community stage in an ecological succession; in each there is a dominant species that exerts control over the other species that are present
Desert Biome
recieve less than 10in. rain each year; rain concentrated within a few heavy cloud bursts; growing season = the few days after the rainfall; inhabited mostly by small animals and plants that conserve water actively; desert animals live in burrows; few birds/ mammals (only the ones that found ways to keep a constant body temp)
Grassland Biome
low rainfall (10 - 30 in yr); provides no shelter for herbivorous mammals from carnivorous predators so animals that do inhabit grasslands have developed long legs and many are hoofed (better running)
Tropical Rain Forest Biome
aka "jungle"; high temperatures and torrential rains; climax community = dense growth of vegetation that does not shed its leaves; has vines and epiphytes (plants growing on plants); floor inhabited by saprophytes; sunlight hardly ever reaches floor
plants growing on other plants; typical of the Tropical Rain Forest Biome
Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome
Cold winters, warm summers, moderate rainfall; beech, maple, oaks, willows shed leaves during the winter; typical animals deer, fox, woodchuck, squirrel
Temperate Coniferous Forest Biome
Cold, dry; fir, pine, spruce trees; much of the vegetation evolved adaptations for water conservation like needle-shaped leaves; (Northern US, Southern Canada)
Taiga Biome
Receives less rainfall than the temperate forests; has long, cold winters; inhabited by one coniferous tree: SPRUCE!; forest floor = moss and lichens; chief animal inhabitant = moose (also black bear, wolf, birds); (Northern Canada and Russia)
Tundra Biome
treeless, frozen plane; between Taiga and northern ice sheets; very short summer (short growing season; ground becomes wet and marshy); typical animals and plants: lichens, moss, polar bears, musk oxen, arctic hens
Polar Region
frozen area, no vegetation or terrestrial animals; animals that do inhabit polar regions generally live near polar oceans
active swimmers like fish, sharks, whales that feed on plankton and smaller fish
crawling and sessile organisms seen in the aphotic zone of the pelagic zone (open sea)
Freshwater biome
rivers, lakes , ponds, marshes; organisms have adaptations to regulate and remove excess H2) because it is a hypotonic solution; climate and weather affect freshwater bodies way more than they do marine biome
Name the Classifications
Kingdom Phylum Subphylum Class Order Family Genus Species (Kings play super chess on fine grained sand)
Scientific Name
Genus, Species; created by Carl Linn (Carolus Linnaeus)
prokaryotes; no nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles; single-celled; reproduce asexually; aka bacteria
primitive eukaryotic organisms with both plant like and animal like characteristics; either single celled or colonies of similar cells with no differentiation of specialized tissues; each cell possesses the capability to carry out all of the life processes; contains all simple eukaryotes that can not be classified as plants or animals
nonphotosynthetic plants; mulicellular, differentiated, nonmotile; either saprophytic or parasite; modes of reproduction varied; cell walls made of chitin, not cellulose (like plants)
multicellular, differentiation of tissues, nonmotile, photosynthetic; many exhibit an alteration of generations and a distinct embryonic phase
multicellular, generally motile, heterotrophic, differentiated tissues (and organs in higher forms)
aka "blue-green algae"; in Kingdom Monera; live primarily in freshwater but can exist in marine environment; have cell wall and photosynthetic pigments; do not have flagella, true nucleus, chloroplasts or mitochondria; can withstand extreme temperatures; believed to be direct descendants of the first organisms to develop photosynthetic properties
Spongers; have 2 layers of cells, have pores; are sessile (stationary); have low degree of cell specialization
ex) hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, coral); aka "coelenterates"; contain digestive sac that is sealed at one end (gastrovascular cavity); have 2 layers of cells: endoderm and ectoderm;
Flatworms; ribbon-like; bilaterally symmetrical; 3 layers of cells (includes a solid mesoderm); do not have circulatory systems; has eyes, anterior brain ganglion, pair of longitudinal nerve cords
Round worms (hookworm, trichina, free-living soil nematodes); has endo, meso, ectoderm; no circulatory system; has nerve cords and an anterior nerve ring
Segmented Worms; earthworms, leeches; have a coelom (true body cavity) in the mesoderm; have well-defined systems: nervous, circulatory, excretory
ex) clams, snails, squid; soft-bodied and possess mantles that often secrete calcareous (calcium carbonate) exoskeletons; breath by gills; contain chambered hearts, blood sinuses, pair of ventral nerve cords
have jointed appendages, chitinous exoskeletons, open circulatory systems; three different classes: insects (3 pairs of legs, spiracles, tracheal tubes), arachnids ( 4 pairs of legs and "book lungs"), crustaceans (segmented body, variable number of appendages, have gills)
ex) starfish and sea urchins; spiny, radially symmetrical; have a water-vascular system; can regenerate their parts (this is evidence of an evolutionary link between chordates and echinoderms)
have notochord; have paired gill slits and a tail extending beyond the anus at some point during development; vertebrates are the most advanced subphylum of Chordates
stiff dorsal rod that characterizes chordates and is present at some stage of embryonic development
all fish have a 2-chambered heart, gills, use external fertilization; jawless fish retain notochord throughout life (eel-like); cartilaginous fish have jaws and teeth and reduced notochord exists as segments between cartilaginous vertebrae like the shark; bony fish are the most prevalent type of fish, have scales, lack notochord in adult form
in larva form - tadpole, in water possess gills, tail and no legs; in adult form - live on land, has lungs, 2 pairs of legs, no tail, 3-chambered heart, no scales, utilizes external fertilization (frogs, salamandars)
terrestrial; have lungs, lay leathery eggs, use internal fertilization; poikilothermic; scales; 3-chambered heart; ex) turtle, lizard
4-chambered heart; homeothermic; eggs have shells
homeothermic; feed offspring with milk produced by mammary glands
type of mammal; lay leathery eggs, horny bills, have milk (mammary) glands with many openings but no nipples; ex) platypus and spiny anteater
pouched mammals; embryo begins development in uterus and completes development while attached to nipples in abdominal pouch; ex) kangaroo and opossum
Coacervate droplets
a tiny spherical droplet of assorted organic molecules (specifically, lipid molecules) which is held together by hydrophobic forces from a surrounding liquid. Precursors to the first cells (but these are not living and most are unstable, but some are stable!). Absorb and incorporate substances from the surrounding environment
Cell Theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells; cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA
Compound Light Microscope
uses 2 lenses to magnify an object (eyepiece and objective); total magnification = eyepiece x magnification of objective; studies nonliving specimens because you need to stain the cell which kills it
Phase Contrast Microscopy
allows the study of living cells; contrast between cells are produced by differences in refractive index
Electron Microscopy
allows 1000 fold higher magnification than light microscopy; can study living cells
sites of protein production; are synthesized by nucleus; free ribosomes are in the cytoplasm, bound ribosomes line the outer membrane of endoplasmic reticulum; composed of 2 subunits (made of proteins and rRNA), one large subunit and one small subunit that only bind together during protein synthesis; Have 3 binding sites: A= aminoacyl-tRNA complex binding site, P= Peptidyl-tRNA binding site (growing chain), E= exit, where tRNA is released
Endoplasmic Reticulum
network of membrane enclosed spaces involved in the transport of materials throughout the cell, particularly materials that will be secreted by the cell; provides channels throughout the cytoplasm and provides a direct continuous passageway from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane
Golgi Apparatus
receives vesicles and their contents from the ER, modifies them (glycosylation), repackages them into vesicles, and distributes them to the cell surface by exocytosis
enzymatic process that links saccharides to produce glycans, attached to proteins, lipids or other organic molecules
sites of aerobic respiration within the cell (supplies energy); each mitochondrion is bounded by an outer and inner phospholipid bilayer
where most of the cell's metabolic activity occurs
streaming movement within cell that allows for transport in the cytoplasm
Vacuole (and vesicles)
membrane bound sacs that transport and store materials that are ingested, secreted, processed or digested by the cell; vacuole=large, more in plants; vessicles=small, more in animals
specialized microtubles involved in spindle organization during cell division; not bound by a membrane; Plants do not have them, Animal cells usually have 2 centrioles at right angles to each other and lie in the centrosome
membrane bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes involved in intracellular digestion; break down material ingested by the cell
cell commits suicide by rupturing the lysosome membrane and releasing its hydrolytic enzymes
made of microtubles and microfilaments, gives cell mechanical support, maintains shape and functions in cell motility(ability to move spontaneously and independently)
Brownian movement
part of intracellular circulation; the movement of particles due to kinetic energy spreads small, suspended particles throughout the cytoplasm of the cell
Cyclosis or streaming
part of intracellular circulation; circular motion of cytoplasm around the cell transport molecules
Extracellular circulation, and kinds of
transport throughout the body of an organism; 1)diffusion, if cells in direct or close contact with external environment food and O2 can just diffuse in 2) Circulatory System, when diffusion won't cut it, requires vessles to transport fluid and a pump to drive the circulation
Porteases do what?
Degrade proteins into amino acids
Lipases do what?
Break down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol
Prosthetic groups
cofactors that bind to the enzyme by strong covalent bonds
breaks down glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate, produces 2 ATP and reduces 2 NAD+ to 2 NADH
List the Glycolytic Pathway
Glucose -UsesATP-> Glucose-6-Phosphate --> Fructose-6-Phosphate -UsesATP->Fructose 1,6-Phosphate --> Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL) -->1,3 Diphosphoglycerate --MakesATP-> 3-Phosphoglycerate --> 2-Phosphoglycerate --> Phosphoendopyruvate --MakesATP-> Pyruvate
Ways you can degrade Pyruvate?
Anaerobic=fermentation, aerobic= cell respiration in mitochondria
way to degrade pyruvate w/o O2 present; NAD+ must be regenerated for glycolysis to continue in absence of O2; pyruvate reduced into ethanol or lactic acid; generates only 2 ATP per glucose molecule
Alcohol Fermentation
occurs only in yeast and some bacteria, Pyruvate converted to ethanol thus regenerating NAD+ so glycolysis can continue
Lactic Acid Fermentation
occurs in some fungi, bacteria and human muscle cells during strenuous activity; pyruvate converted into lactic acid, thus NAD+ is regenerated and glycolysis can continue
Cellular Respiration
best pathway to harvest energy from glucose; gets 36-38ATP; Needs O2 because O2 is the final acceptor of electrons
What are the 3 Stages of Cellular Respiration?
1)Pyruvate Decarboxylation 2)Citric Acid Cycle aka Krebs cycle 3) Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Pyruvate Decarboxylation
pyruvate transported from cytoplasm to mitochondrial matrix, decarboxylated and acetyl group left is transferred to coenzyme A to form acetylCoA; NAD+ is reduced to NADH
For each turn of the citric acid cycle, how much CO2, ATP, NADH and FADH2 is produced?
2 CO2 released, 1 ATP formed (substrate level phosphorylation through a GTP intermediate), 3 NADH and 1 FADH2
Electron Transport Chain
inside inner mitochondrial membrane; as electrons transfer from carrier to carrier, energy is released and used to form ATP (via H+ gradient); most of ETC carriers are cytochromes (electron carriers that resemble hemoglobin) which have a central Fe; the final acceptor is O2 which then picks up 2 H+'s to form water
How much ATP is formed by substrate level phosphorylation throughout Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration
2 ATP from Glycolysis, 2 (1 from each pyruvate) from citric acid cycle = 4 ATP total
How many ATP is a NADH worth?
1 NADH = 3 ATP
How many ATP is a FADH2 worth?
1 FADH2 = 2 ATP
How and where are fats stored?
stored in the form of triglycerides in the adiopse tissue
each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the parent cell's DNA
nuclear division (affiliated with mitosis)
cell division (affiliated with mitosis)
Mitosis - Interphase
90% of cell life spent in interphase; during this time each chromosome is replicated, after replication, chromosomes consist of 2 identical sister chromatids (held together at center by centromere)
DNA uncoiled
Mitosis - Prophase
centriole pairs separate and move to polar ends of the cell, spindle apparatus forms, nuclear membrane dissolves (allows spindle fibers to interact with chromosomes)
Mitosis - Telophase
spindle apparatus disappears; 2 new nuclear membranes form around each set of new chromosomes, each nucleus has same number of chromosomes (diploid #, 2N), chromosomes uncoil and resume interphase form
Mitosis - Cytokinesis
end of telophase, cytoplasm divides into 2 daughter cells (each with own nucleus and organelles); in animal cells, cleavage furrow forms
What are the differences between Plant and Animal Cell division?
1) plant cells do not have centrioles (instead spindle apparatus synthesized by microtuble organizing centers - not visible) 2) plant cells divide by forming cell plate, not like cleavage furrow in animals
Overview of what happens in Meiosis
fusion of 2 gametes, involves 2 divisions of primary sex cells which results in 4 haploid (just N) cells called gametes
Meiosis - Interphase
parent cell's chromosomes replicate, yields 2 N of sister chromatids
Meiosis - Prophase 1
chromatin condenses into chromosomes, spindle apparatus forms, nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappear; homologous chromosomes (one from mom and one from dad) come together and intertwine (synapsis); where crossing over occurs
In meiosis during prophase 1 when the 2 sister chromosomes come together and intertwine they make a tetrad; each synaptic pair of homologous chromosomes (because each chromosome has 2 sister chromatids)
Point where two chromatids are intertwined
Meiosis - Telophase 1
nuclear membrane forms around each new nucleus, at this point each chromosome still consists of sister chromatids joined by centromere
Meiosis - Second Meiotic Division
Happens right after Meiosis 1, no chromosomal replication, proceeds exactly like mitosis, ends with each daughter cell having haploid chromosomes (in human females, only one of these becomes a functional gamete)
organs that produce gametes (female=ovaries, male=testes)
Anatomy of a Sperm
head= almost all nucleus; tail= flagellum, propels sperm; body/neck= contains mitochondria which provides energy for movement
follicle (in ovaries)
multilayer sac of cells that contains, nourishes, protects an immature ovum; also produces estrogen
steroid hormones, necessary for normal female maturation; stimulate development of female reproductive tract and contribute to development of secondary sexual characteristics and sex drive; cause thickening of endometrium (uterine wall); secreted by ovarian follicles and corpus luteum
steroid hormone secreted by corpus luteum during luteal phase of menstrual cycle; stimulates development and maintenance of endometrial walls in preparation for implantation
What are the four phases of the Menstrual cycle
Follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, menstruation
Follicular phase
begins with cessation of the menstrual flow from the previous cycle; FSH (follicule stimulating hormone) from anterior pituitary promotes development of the follicle; follicle grows and begins secreting estrogen
midway through cycle; mature ovarian follicle bursts and realeses an ovum; caused by a surge of LH (surge in LH caused by the peak in estrogen levels from the stimulation of the follicle)
Luteal Phase
LH (luteinizing hormome) causes burst follicle to develop into corpus luteum (secretes estrogen and progesterone); progesterone causes glands in endometrium to mature and become prepared for implantation of an embryo; the estrogen and progesterone are essential in maintaining the endometrium
Corpus luteum
develops because of LH in the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual cycle; secretes estrogen and progesterone
Menstruation - What happens if the ovum is NOT fertilized?
corpus luteum atrophies causing drop in progesterone and estrogen levels causing endometruium to slough off which causes menstrual flow
Menstruation - What happens if the ovum IS fertilized?
developing placenta produces hCG which maintains the corpus luteum which then can continue to supply the estrogen and progesterone that maintain the uterus and endometrium until placenta takes over in production of those hormones
Which group all reproduces asexually? Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes?
all prokaryotes reproduce asexually, although some primitive eukaryote cells have been known to fission
Gametophyte Generation
In plants, the phase where they reproduce sexually; the haploid gametophyte generation produces gametes by mitosis; union of male and female gametes at fertilization restores the diploid sporophyte generation
Sporophyte Generation
In plants, the phase where they reproduce asexually; (Diploid generation); evolutionary trend has been towards increased dominance of this phase
Mendel's four proposed principles of Inheritance
1) genes exist in alternative forms (alleles) 2) Organisms have 2 alleles for each trait (one from each parent) 3) the 2 alleles segregate during meiosis giving gametes only one allele for each trait 4) If 2 alleles in organism are different then only 1 would be fully expressed (dominant allele) ...this last part not true for everything
Nucleotide is made up of...
1) deoxyribose 2) phosphate group 3) nitrogenous base
How does DNA replicate
DNA molecule unwinds and each strand is a template for complementary base pairing; each daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand therefore DNA replication is semiconservative
Stop codons
How is RNA different from DNA?
1) has ribose not deoxyribose 2) contains Uracil (U) instead of Thymine 3) usually single stranded
Polypeptide synthesis - stages
1) Initiation: ribosome binds to mRNA (near 5') at a start codon (AUG), MET-tRNA binds bc it has the anti codon UAG 2) Elongation: h-bonds form between mRNA codoin in A site and the complimentary anticondon on the incoming aminoacyl tRNA complex, peptide bond is formed btw the amino acid attached to the incoming tRNA and the MET at the P site, this bond forming makes the chain of polypeptide come off of the A site
3) Translocation: Ribosome advances 3 nucleotides along mRNA, uncharged tRNA is expelled; peptidyl tRNA from A site slides over to P site; A site now empty
ribosomes that can translate multiple strands of mRNA at the same time
the small, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay separate from the bacterial chromosomes, carry accessory genes
plasmids able to integrate into the bacterial genome
Bacterial Replication
bacterial replication begins at a point on their circular DNA and proceeds in both directions
F factor
best studies ex factor in E. Coli; if you have this plasmid= F+ cells; if you don't have it F- cells; conjugation occurs from F+ to an F- cell
Hfr cells
high frequency of recombination; sex factor gets incorporated into the bacterial genome so when conjugation bridge forms, the whole bacterial chromosome duplicates and attempts to transfer over, many times conjugation bridge breaks before all of it can get over
Gene regulation
regulation of transcription; controlled by an operon which varies the accessibility of the RNA polymerase to genes being transcribed
made of: structural genes (contain DNA for proteins), operator gene (sequence of nontranscribeable DNA that repressor binds to), promoter gene (noncoding sequence of DNA where the RNA polymerase binds to
Regulator gene
codes for synthesis of a represser molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase from transcribing structural genes
Inducible Systems
one type of regulation of transcription system; default: repressor bound to operator; allow transcription when inducer binds to repressor which forms an inducer/repressor complex which can no longer bind and inhibit operator; this is the lactose system; inducer is usually the substrate for the enzyme the structural genes encode
virus that infects bacterium; attaches to it, bores a hole through bacterial cell wall, injects its DNA; bacteriophage then enters either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle
Lytic Cycle
One of two types of cycles a bacteriophage can enter into; bacteriophage takes control of bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures new progeny; bacterial cell lyses and releases new virons; bacteriophages that replicate by lytic cycle and kill there host cells are "virulent"
Virulent bacteriophages
bacteriophages that replicate by lytic cycle and kill their host cells
Lysogenic cycle
bacteriophage doesn't lyse cell; bacteriophage DNA becomes incorporated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form (prophage) and it lies dormant; virus could stay integrated indefinitely or it canreenter lytic cyle from environmental circumstances (radiation, ultraviolet light or chemicals) or spontaneously
a harmless form of bacteriophage DNA that is incorporated into the bacteria chromosome; bacteria that contain prophages are resistant to further infection ("super infection") by similar phages
Southern blots
allows for the detection of a specific DNA sequence in a specific DNA sample; Procedure: 1) DNA is cleaved into restriction fragments by restriction endonucleases that cut at specific restriction sites, 2) Fragments separated by gel electrophoresis, 3) Detect sequence by washing with radioactively labeled probe
Cloning DNA in bacteria
another way (other than PCR) to amplify genes; 1) ligation of the DNA sequence of interest with vector DNA fragments 2) once the recombinant molecule is formed it can be inserted into the bacteria strain, through transformation, identical copies of DNA produced
Where does fertilization occur in vertebrates?
in the widest portion of the oviduct
After fertilization, when do the 1st, 2nd,and 3rd cleavages occur
1st- 32 hours after fertilization; 2nd - 60 hours; 3rd - 72 hours (after third cleavage, the 8-celled embryo reaches the uterus)
after the blastua has implanted in the uterus; double-walled stage of the embryo resulting from invagination of the blastula; eventually develops into 3 layers
integument (includes: epidermis, hair, nails, epithelium of nose mouth and anal canal, lens of eye, retina, nervous system)
epithelial linings of the digestive and respiratory tracts (including die lungs), parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder lining
musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, connective tissue throughout body, portions of digestive and respiratory organs
How do protozoans circulate?
diffusion of gases and nutrients through cell
How to Cnidarians circulate?
Cnidarians are just 2 layers of cells thick; all cells are in direct contact with either the internal or external environment; no need for circulatory system
How do Anthropods circulate?
have open circulatory systems, the blood (interstitial fluid) is in direct contact with body tissues; blood circulated mostly by body movements; nutrient and gas exchange occurs in sinuses
How do Annalids circulate?
closed circulatory system; dorsal vessel functions as heart and contracts moving blood towards head, 5 aortic looks function as additional pumps
Life cycle of erythrocytes
formed from stem cells in bone marrow; lose nuclei, mitochondria and membrane organelles; when mature circulate in blood for 120 days; then phagocytized by special cells in liver and spleen
cell fragments, no nuclei, clot formation
The clotting cascade
1)Platelet finds exposed collagen of damaged vessel 2) Platelet releases chemical that causes neighboring platelets to adhere to each other (platelet plug) 3)collected platelets and damaged tissue both released thromboplastin 4) Thromboplastin and calcium and vit.K converts inactive prothrombin to its active form thrombin 5) Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin 6) fibrin threads coat damaged area and trap blood cells to form clot
Humoral Immunity
production of antibodies (aka immunoglobins) after exposure to antigens
Active Immunity
production of antibodies during an immune response; con be stimulated by a vaccination, could require weeks to build up
Passive Immunity
transfer of antibodies produced by another individual or organism; acquired by pregnancy or injection; active immediately but short lived; usually not very specific immunity
Gamma globulin
the fraction of the blood containing a wide variety of antibodies, can be used to confer temporary protection against hepatitis and other diseases by passive immunity
Inflammatory Response
injured cells release histamine; blood vessels dilate; blood flow to region increases; granulocytes come to injury site and phagocytize antigenic material; often accompanied by fever
ABO blood types
erythrocytes have characteristic cell surface proteins that can be considered antigens; blood type A has antigen A so it produces anti-B antibodies; blood type B has antigen B so it produces anti-A antibodies; blood type O has no antigens so produces anti-A and anti-B antibodies (universal donor); blood type AB has both antigens and is the universal recipient
Adrenal Glands
sit on top of kidneys; consist of adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
Adrenal Cortex
anterior pituitary produces ACTH which stimulates the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete steroid hormones ("corticosteroids")
derived from cholesterol; 3 types = glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, cortical sex hormones
ex) cortisol and cortisone; involved in glucose regulation and protein metabolism; raise blood glucose levels by promoting protein breakdown and gluconeogenesis and decrease protein synthesis; are antagonistic to effects of insulin
production of glucose from non-carbohydrates; promoted by glucocorticoids
any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney
Cortical sex hormones
adrenal cortex secretes small quantities of androgens (male sex hormones) in both males and females; in males, most androgens secreted by testes and the adrenal cortex has little effect but in females, overproduction of androgens by adrenal cortex can cause masculine characteristics ( like facial hair)
male sex hormones
Adrenal Medulla
produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
class of amino acid derivatives that epinephrine and norepinephrine belong to
Epinephrine - physiological details
increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue which increases the blood glucose and basal metabolic rate
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Overall Effects
increases rate and strength of heart beat; shunts blood to skeletal muscle, heart and brain; causes "fight or flight" response; controlled by sympathetic nerve system; also neurotransmitters in addition to hormomes
Pituitary Gland
aka "hypophysis"; small, 3-lobed gland at base of brain; 2 main lobes = anterior and posterior; in humans the third intermediate lobe is rudimentary
Anterior Pituitary
releases both direct and trophic hormones; is regulated by hypothalamic secretions ("releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors); FLAT PIG = FSH;LH; ACTH; Prolactin; (I)gnore; GH
Direct Hormones
hormones which effect target organs; those released from anterior pituitary = Prolactin and GH
Trophic Hormones
hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones; those released from the anterior pituitary= FSH, LH, ATCH,TSH
Secreted directly by anterior pituitary; Growth Hormone, aka Somatotrophin; promotes bone and muscle growth
stunted growth, in children lack of GH
overproduction of GH in children
overproduction of GH in adults; results in a disproportionate overgrowth of bone, localized especially in the skull, jaw, feet, hands
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone; stimulates adrenal cortex to syntesize and secrete glucocorticoids; regulated by releasing hormone corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)
Corticotrophin-releasing factor; regulates anterior pituitary's trophic hormone ACTH
thyroid stimulating hormone; stimulates thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormones, including thyroxin (hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells)
Intermediate lobe of the pituitary; in mammals its function is unclear; in frogs, MSH causes darkening of the skin via induced dispersion of molecules of pigment in melanophore cells
Posterior Pituitary
aka neurohypophysis; does not synthesize hormones; stores and releases peptide hormones oxytocin and ADH which are produced by neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus; hormone secretion is stimulated by action potentials from hypothalamus
part of forebrain, located above pituitary gland; neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus regulate pituitary gland secretions by neg feedback mech. and through the actions of inhibiting and releasing hormones
Hypothalamic- hypophyseal portal system
system that allows releasing hormones from hypothalamus to immediately reach anterior pituitary; blood from capillary bed in hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary where it goes into a second capillary network
2-lobed, located ventral surface of trachea; produces and secretes thyroxin and triiodothyronine (the two thyroid hormones) and calcitonin
Thyroid hormones
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3); necessary in children for growth and neurological development; increases rate of metabolism throughout body
both an exocrine (secretes digestive enzymes into small intestine via series of ducts)and endocrine organ ( islets of Langerhans)
Islets of Langerhans
Alpha cells produces/ secrete glucagone; Beta cells produce/ secrete insulin
Kidneys and blood volume decrease
Blood volume decreases, kidneys produce renin, renin converts plasma protein angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1, angiotensin 1 converted to angiotension 2, angiotension 2 stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone, aldosterone increases blood volume by reabsorbing calcium at the kidney which increases water
hormone released by small intestine when acidic food from stomach enters, stimulates secretion of alkaline bicarbonate solution from pancreas which neutralizes the acidity of chyme
hormone release from small intestine in response to presence of fats, causes contraction of gall bladder and release of bile to small intestine (to aid in digestion of fats)
produce myelin in CNS; (so type of glial cell)
Schwann cells
produce myelin in Peripheral Nervous System; (so type of glial cell)
Effector cells
cells in muscles and glands that are not neurons but can receive communication from a neuron
Ways neurotransmitter is removed from synapse
1) Uptake carrier - protein that re-takes up the neurotransmitter into the presynaptic cell and recycles it/degrades it 2)Enzyme degrade synapse - enzymes in synapse degrade it 3) neurotransmitters diffuse out of synapse
inhibits activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme that degrades acetylcholine in synapse, so acetylcholine keeps affecting postsynaptic cell and no coordinated muscle contractions can take place
in the forebrain; major component of it is the cerebral cortex (the highly convoluted gray matter that can e seen on the surface of the brain); cerebral cortex interprets sensory signals and sends motor responses and involved in memory and creativity; also has olfactory bulb
relay center for visual and auditory impulses; also plays a role in motor control
Spinal Cord
takes sensory input to brain and response from brain to body; reflexes (responses of the spinal cord without the brain); in a cross section of spinal, outer white matter is the motor and sensory axons, the inner gray matter is the nerve cell bodies
Peripheral Nervous System
contains nerves and ganglia; has 2 divisions: somatic automatic (both have motor and sensory parts)
Vagus Nerve
important parasympathetic nerve, innervates many of the thoraci and abdominal viscera; uses acetylcholine as primary neurotransmitter
Choroid layer
beneath sclera; helps supply retina with blood; dark, pigmented area that reduces reflection in the eye
colored, muscular, controls diameter for pupil
suspended behind pupil; light continues through here
Ciliary muscles
control lens shape and focal length
turn light into action potentials; two types: cones and rods
Path of light
enters through pupil; lens; photoreceptor cells; bipolar cells; ganglion cells, axons of ganglian cells bundle to form optic nerve
Vitreous humor
jelly inside the eye; maintains eye shape and optical properties
Aqueous humor
formed/produced by eye; exits through ducts to join venous blood; glaucoma happens when outflow of this is blocked
Path of Sound waves in ear
outer ear (auricle[external ear], auditory canal) to tympanic membrane (eardrum in middle ear) to 3 ossicles: malleus, incus, stapes to oval window to fluid filled cochlea which creates pressure which then stimulates hair cells in basilar membrane to transduce that pressure into action potentials
external ear
Vestibular apparatus
maintains equilibrium; located in inner ear
Basilar Membrane
where the hair cells are in the inner ear
Protozoa Nervous System
because unicellular, have no organized nervous system; respond to stimuli like touch, heat, light, chemicals
Cnidaria Nervous System
Has a nerve net which is a simple nervous system that has limited centralization; some jellyfish have clusters of cells and pathways to coordinate swimming movement
Annelida Nervous System
Have a primitive central nervous system; have defined ventral nerve cord and anterior "brain" (fused ganglia); have defined nerve pathways from receptors to effectors
Anthropod Nervous System
Similar to annelids nervous system but have more specialized sense organs (compound or simple eyes; tympanum for sound)
External Respiration
entrance of air into lungs, gas exchange between alveoli and blood
Internal Respiration
exchange of gas between blood and cells and intracellular processes of respiration
Protozoa and Cnidaria Respiration
every cell is in contact with the external environment; exchange of respiratory gasses through diffusion through cell membrane
Annelida Respiration
secrete mucus creating a moist surface for gas exchange by diffusion; then the circulatory system brings 02 to cells
Arthropod Respiration
consists of many trachea whose branches reach almost every cell; spiracles = where the trachea reach the surface for exchange; uses diffusion, no carrier of oxygen needed therefore efficient and insects have a relatively effortless open circulatory system
Spiracles (Arthropoda)
Where the trachea reach the surface for exchange
too much phenylpyruvic acid