Revolution April 7


Terms in this set (...)

George Washington
First president of the United States; Federalist. As first President, he set many precedents such as a Cabinet and serving only 2 terms. Only president to be elected unanimously
John Adams
2nd President of the United States-defeats Jefferson in 1796, loses in 1800; President during the XYZ Affair and helped pass the Alien and Sedition Acts; Federalist
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States-elected by the House of Reps in 1800; Leader of the Democratic-Republicans; Bought the Louisiana Purchase and ordered Lewis and Clark to explore the Louisiana Purchase.
Alexander Hamilton
Leader of the Federalists; George Washington's Secretary of the Treasury; Created the National Bank of the United States-killed in a duel by Aaron Burr
Napoleon Bonaparte
French leader who was waging war against Great Britain, and needed money to do that. Sold the United States the Louisiana Territory for $15 million.
James Madison
Democrat-Republican 4th President of the United States; Was president during the War of 1812; Escaped Washington DC when the British invaded and saved many artifacts before they were burnt by the British.
Merriweather Lewis
Chosen by Thomas Jefferson to be the Head commander of the Lewis and Clark expedition which explored the new Louisiana Territory, and lands further west to the Pacific Ocean.
William Clark
Chosen by Lewis to be his second in command for the expedition westward; He chose and trained the men for the journey westward.
Shoshone Native American who met Lewis and Clark on their journey west; became their interpreter and helped lead them through the difficult terrain of the Rocky Mountains. Improved relations with Native Americans.
Francis Scott Key
Lawyer who was captured by the British and kept on a British ship in Baltimore's harbor. Watched as the British bombarded Fort McHenry in 1814, and was psyched when he still saw "old glory" flying from Fort McHenry in the dawn. So inspired that he wrote "The Star Spangled Banner," our national Anthem!
Henry Knox
A favorite general of Washington during the Revolutionary War. Became the first Secretary of War during Washington's presidency.
Zebulon Pike
From 1805 to 1807, Zebulon Pike explored the upper Mississippi River, the Arkansas River, and parts of present-day Colorado and New Mexico. In November 1806, Pike viewed a mountain peak rising above the Colorado plains. Today, this mountain is known as Pikes Peak. His report on the expedition greatly expanded Americans' knowledge about the Southwest.
War Hawks
A group of young Democratic-Republican Congressman from the South and the West that were supportive of an all out war with England during Madison's Administration. John C Calhoun and Henry Clay were two of the leaders.
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington choose not to run for a third term and return to Mt. Vernon. In his Farewell Address, he warned of the danger of political parties and permanent European alliances. Both, he believed, could create trouble for the young nation and divide us.
Marbury vs. Madison/Judicial Review
Marbury sued the Jefferson administration and then Secretary of State, James Madison for not submitting his judge appointment in time. He took it to the Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in favor of Jefferson, saying the Judiciary Act o 1789 was "unconstitutional" and that the Supreme Court cannot be the original jurisdiction of court cases involving the federal government. It also establishes "Judicial Review" which states that the Supreme Court can rule an action of of Congress or the President be "unconstitutional". Jefferson did not like this because he thought it gave too much power to the Supreme Court and the National Government. Judicial Review still exists today.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Laws passed during John Adams administration; Alien act gave the president the right to deport people who he felt were suspicious against the country; the Sedition Act gave the power to stop people from speaking out against the government. The Democratic-Republicans viewed you this as an attack on them and their supporters.
XYZ Affair
XYZ were code names for three French diplomats who tried to bribe the United States so the French would stop capturing our ships. If the US gives France, $250,000 then the US reps would be able to to just talk to the French Foreign Minister. Word of this "bribe" got back to America and we were were deeply offended; led to an undeclared naval war with France as we both captured each other's ships. Adams creates the Department of Navy in to go against the French.
XYZ Affair and Alien/Sedition Acts were both big reasons as to why Adams was not re-elected.
Louisiana Purchase
French leader Napoleon Bonaparte sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million. France sold it to pay off debts and to be able to keep fighting Britain.
Whiskey Rebellion
Western PA farmers who protested the Federal taxes on Whiskey; was a threat to the new government; George Washington put the rebellion down
Led by Alexander Hamilton; believed in a strong National government, limit on states' rights, pro-British and pro-Business and pro-National Bank; loose interpretation of Constitution
Democratic Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson; believed in more states' rights and a weaker National government; Pro-French and Pro-Farmer; No National Bank; strict interpretation of the Constitution
1st Bank of the United States
Bank created by Alexander Hamilton; goal was to stabilize and unify the currency of the United States, and to pay off the National and State debts.
Election of 1800
AKA the "Bloodless Revolution"; When Democratic Republican Thomas Jefferson peacefully took control of the government from the Federalists led by John Adams ; No fighting, war or protests broke out after the election. It was a peaceful transition of power. TJ beat Adams in the election!
Lewis and Clark Expedition/Corps of Discovery
Thomas Jefferson requested Lewis and Clark to explore the new Louisiana Purchase/territory and the lands west to the Pacific Ocean. Took over two years to complete. Goals: 1-Find a Northwest passage-water route to the Pacific Ocean; 2- Establish good relations with the Native Americans in the West; 3-document new species of plant and animal life in the West.
Continental Divide
A continental divide is a ridge that separates river systems flowing toward opposite sides of a continent. In North America, some rivers flow east from the crest of the Rockies into the Mississippi, which drains into the Gulf of Mexico. Other rivers flow west from the Rockies and empty into the Pacific Ocean.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Gen. William Henry Harrison defeats the Native Americans led by Tecumseh in Indiana in 1811. After the victory, it was discovered that the British were supplying the Native Americans. This was one of the reasons why Madison asked Congress to declare war on Britain.
Embargo 0f 1807
Embargo Act stopped all international trade in the Atlantic. Passed during the Jefferson Administration because the British and French were capturing our ships and impressing our sailors into service. The Embargo Act was supposed to hurt the British and French economically but also hurt the US. Therefore, in 1809, Madison ended the Embargo Act.
War of 1812
War between Britain and United States from 1812 to 1814; fought because Britain was stealing our ships and impressing sailors (forcing US sailors to become British navy sailors). It becomes a diplomatic victory for the US-a point of pride as we stood up to the British again. Last time we would fight the British. Would become allies at this point on. Called the Second American Revolution.
Treaty of Ghent
December, 1814 Treaty that ended the War of 1812 between England and the US; didn't solve the sailor issues, but did open up the Great lakes lands to American Expansion.
Battle of New Orleans
Battle that took place 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was signed. Despite being outnumbered, Jackson led a ragtag group of Natives, French Pirates and freed slaves in a battle that defeated the British. Andrew Jackson became a national hero.
Burning of Washington, DC
British burnt down Washington DC in August of 1814. The White House was destroyed and James and Dolly Madison had to run for their lives