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Early Americans and European Exploration-Vocabulary

Chapters 1 and 2
STUDY
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migration
the movement of people from one region to another
hunter-gatherers
a person who hunts animals and gathers wild plants to provide for his or her needs
culture
the common values and traditions of a society, such as language, government, and family relationships
pueblos
aboveground houses made of a heavy clay called adobe that were built by Native Americans of the southwestern United States
totems
images of ancestors or animal spirits; often carved onto tall, wooden poles by Native American peoples of the Pacific Northwest
teepees
cone-shaped shelters made of buffalo skins used by Native Americans in the Plains region
astrolabe
a device that enabled navigators to learn their ship's location by charting the position of the stars
caravels
ships that used triangular sails to sail against the wind, and had rudders to improve steering
Line of Demarcation
boundary between Spanish and Portuguese territories in the New World
circumnavigate
to travel all the way around the globe
Columbian Exchange
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
conquistadors
a Spanish soldier and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Northwest Passage
a nonexistent path through North America that early explorers searched for that would allow ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean
charter
an official document that gives a person the right to establish a colony
Mound Builders
people that built mounds as tombs to honor the dead
immune
natural resistance
Middle Passage
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Paleo-Indians
the first Americans who crossed from Asia into North America sometime between 38,000 and 10,000 BC
Olmec
central Americans that were known for their stone architecture
Maya
central Americans that grew maize and built large cities
Aztec
central Americans that were known for being fierce warriors
Inca
South Americans that built their cities in the Andes Mountains and named their capitol city Cuzco
Anasazi
indians that introduced goods like the adobe to American ranchers
Iroquis League
a political confederation of five northeastern Native American nations of the Seneca, Oneida, Mohawk, Cayuga, and Onondaga that made decisions concerning war and peace
Leif Eriksson
A viking explorer from Norway that was heading to Greenland when strong winds blew him to North America
Prince Henry the Navigator
A man responsible for advances in exploration
Christopher Columbus
an Italian explorer that was convinced that he could reach Asia by going westward through the Atlantic Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan
a Portuguese explorer that sailed to the tip of South America and then he kept going up even though his ship was low on food and water
Amerigo Vespucci
he led a Spanish fleet to a coast of South America and claimed he found a new world
Francisco Pizzaro
an explorer that heard rumors about the Incan empire and conquered their city
Hernan Cortes
a conquistador that heard about a wealthy land in Mexico and set out to find it
Bartolome de las Casa
a priest that said that the colony should treat the Native Americans kindly and convert them to Christianity
John Cabot
an Italian explorer that sailed to North America
Jacques Cartier
French sailor and explorer, he made three voyages to Canada for Francis I.
Henry Hudson
an English captain that set out to find the North-West
Samuel de Champlain
a French explorer that explored North America, following the steps of a previous French explorer
Louis Jolliet
an explorer that set out to find a river that had been reported by French missionaries
Jacques Marquette
a French missionary that went with Louis Jolliet to find the river
Peter Minuit
an explorer that developed the town of New Amsterdam