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Chapters 1 and 2


the movement of people from one region to another


a person who hunts animals and gathers wild plants to provide for his or her needs


the common values and traditions of a society, such as language, government, and family relationships


aboveground houses made of a heavy clay called adobe that were built by Native Americans of the southwestern United States


images of ancestors or animal spirits; often carved onto tall, wooden poles by Native American peoples of the Pacific Northwest


cone-shaped shelters made of buffalo skins used by Native Americans in the Plains region


a device that enabled navigators to learn their ship's location by charting the position of the stars


ships that used triangular sails to sail against the wind, and had rudders to improve steering

Line of Demarcation

boundary between Spanish and Portuguese territories in the New World


to travel all the way around the globe

Columbian Exchange

the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa


a Spanish soldier and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain

Northwest Passage

a nonexistent path through North America that early explorers searched for that would allow ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean


an official document that gives a person the right to establish a colony

Mound Builders

people that built mounds as tombs to honor the dead


natural resistance

Middle Passage

a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies


the first Americans who crossed from Asia into North America sometime between 38,000 and 10,000 BC


central Americans that were known for their stone architecture


central Americans that grew maize and built large cities


central Americans that were known for being fierce warriors


South Americans that built their cities in the Andes Mountains and named their capitol city Cuzco


indians that introduced goods like the adobe to American ranchers

Iroquis League

a political confederation of five northeastern Native American nations of the Seneca, Oneida, Mohawk, Cayuga, and Onondaga that made decisions concerning war and peace

Leif Eriksson

A viking explorer from Norway that was heading to Greenland when strong winds blew him to North America

Prince Henry the Navigator

A man responsible for advances in exploration

Christopher Columbus

an Italian explorer that was convinced that he could reach Asia by going westward through the Atlantic Ocean

Ferdinand Magellan

a Portuguese explorer that sailed to the tip of South America and then he kept going up even though his ship was low on food and water

Amerigo Vespucci

he led a Spanish fleet to a coast of South America and claimed he found a new world

Francisco Pizzaro

an explorer that heard rumors about the Incan empire and conquered their city

Hernan Cortes

a conquistador that heard about a wealthy land in Mexico and set out to find it

Bartolome de las Casa

a priest that said that the colony should treat the Native Americans kindly and convert them to Christianity

John Cabot

an Italian explorer that sailed to North America

Jacques Cartier

French sailor and explorer, he made three voyages to Canada for Francis I.

Henry Hudson

an English captain that set out to find the North-West

Samuel de Champlain

a French explorer that explored North America, following the steps of a previous French explorer

Louis Jolliet

an explorer that set out to find a river that had been reported by French missionaries

Jacques Marquette

a French missionary that went with Louis Jolliet to find the river

Peter Minuit

an explorer that developed the town of New Amsterdam

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