Chapter 5 Des Jardin
Terms in this set (88)
What are the 4 chambers of the heart?
What separates the Rt and Lt atrium?
What separates the Rt and Lt ventricle?
Where does the heart rest?
Superior surface of the diaphragm
What is the fibrous pericardium?
Outer wall of the heart; tough, dense, connective tissue
Pericardium primary function?
Protect the heart
Anchor the heart to other structures
What is the serous pericardium?
Inner wall of the heart; Thin, slippery, serous membrane
What are the 2 layers in the serous pericardium?
What is the parietal layer?
Internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
what is another name for the visceral layer?
Where is the visceral layer?
outer layer of the heart
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
What type of epithelial cells are the epicardium?
What type of epithelial cells are the endocardium?
Glistening white sheet of squamous
Where is the endocardium located?
Inner myocardial surface, lines chambers of the heart
What does the endocardium consist of?
Small bood vessels
Arteries of the heart?
Rt/Lt coronary arteries
Lt coronary artery divides into?
Rt coronary artery divides into?
Posterior interventricular Branch
From the anterior side of the heart where does the venous blood drain to?
Great cardiac vein
From the posterior side of the heart, where does the venous blood drain to?
Middle cardiac vein
Venous blood from anterior/posterior drains into?
Coronary Sinus (large venous vein)
Where does the systemic system start and end?
Aorta ends @ Rt atrium
What does the systemic feed?
Where does the pulmonary system begin and end?
pulmonary trunk ends @ Lt atrium
What does the pulmonary feed?
Where does gas exchange occur?
Gas exchange btw blood/air
Gas exchange btw blood/tissue
What does the vasomotor/cardiac center regulate in the medulla?
Arterial blood pressure through pressure receptors called baroreceptors
How does baroreceptors regulate arterial blood pressure?
By adjusting to change in Blood pressure
When medulla increases the sympathetic activity, what will increase?
Myocardial force of contraction
Maximum pressure generated by ventricle
Lowest pressure remaining in arteries prior to contraction
Normal systemic systolic?
120 mm Hg
Normal systemic diastolic?
80 mm Hg
Normal pulmonary systolic?
25 mm Hg
Normal pulmonary diastolic?
8 mm Hg
Equation for MAP?
MAP=SBP + (2xDBP) / 3
What is a normal MAP?
80-100 mm Hg
When MAP is below 60, what happens?
Decrease of blood flow to the brain/kidneya
Mean arterial pressure?
Left arterial pressure?
Pulmonary is a low or high pressure system?
Driving pressure needed to move blood through the lungs?
10 mm Hg
The net result of sympathetic activity in the medulla?
1. Increase cardiac output from increased heart rate/stroke volume
2. Increased peripheral resistance
3. Return of BP to normal
What is stroke volume?
Volume of blood ejected from the ventricle during each contraction
Normal stroke volume
40-80 mm Hg
What is cardiac output?
Total blood discharged from ventricle per min.
Cardiac Output equation?
CO=SV x HR
What does cardiac output influence directly?
% of blood volume in the veins?
% of blood volume in the arteries?
Is the systemic greater than the pulmonary?
How much greater is the systemic than the pulmonary?
How much blood volume does a adult have?
Under normal circumstances cardiac output influences BP? (T or F)
When heart rate increases, BP increases? (T or F)
Does arterial rise/fall with a pattern corresponding to phases of the cardiac cycle?
# 1 valve replaced by surgery in the heart?
What is the mitral valve? prevents?
between Lt atria/Lt ventricle, prevents back flow into the Lt ventricle
Is the heart con shaped?
What the the apex point to?
What is the base of the Heart shaped like?
What does the base of the heart point to?
Where is the point of Max intensity?
Below Lt nipple, btw 5th and 6th rib
Where does the heart reside?
Double wall sac called the pericardium
Btw 2 layers of the pericardium there is a serous fluid that allows parietal/visceral to glide smooth? (T or F)
Which is the thickest layer of smooth muscle: epicardium, myocardium, pericardium?
Does the pulmonary vein contain oxygenated blood?
What does an artery do?
Moves blood away from heart
What does a vein do?
Moves blood to the heart
Which vein prevents back flow into the Lt ventricle
What are the 5 locations for reading a pulse?
What determines Afterload?
1. Volume/Viscosity of blood ejected
2. Peripheral Vascular Resistance
3. Total cross sectional area of the vascular space into which blood is ejected
When systolic pressure increases, what does resistance do?
What is Myocardial contractility?
The force generated by the myocardium, when the ventricle fibers shorten.
If contractility increases, what does Cardiac Output do?
If contractility decreases, what does Cardiac Output do?
What would cause Tachycardia?
Low blood volume
What would cause Bradycardia in a pt with a HR of 40bpm?
Drug OD (heroin)
During a breathing tx, if a pt has no pulse what would you do first?
Alert someone STAT
If a pt is sitting up talking to you with a strong pulse, but you cant find a BP, what would you do?
Check your equipment and Machines
Figure out what your doing wrong
What is the tricuspid valve?
Btw the Rt atria and Rt ventricle, prevents backflow
Conduction consist of?
Bundle of His
Why is the Lt coronary considered the widow maker?
Lt ventricle isn't pumping you will have a decrease in cardiac output
How many layers does the pericardium have?
What is the path of blood flow to the heart?
Inferior/superior vena cava
Out to the Body