110 terms

Belief Systems-Islam

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A Muslim
Believes in the teachings of Islam
Islam
Means submission to the will of God
Allah
The one and only God to Muslims
The Islamic belief system
originated in Arabia around 600AD
Followers of Islam
are located throughout the world
Arabic origins of Islam
Explain and help to understand some of the practices of Muslims
The practices of Islam
are based on the Five Pillars of Faith
Muslims believe
That the word of God was spoken to His messenger Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel
Muhammad used his teachings to
Pass on the word of God
Muhammed memorised the messages of the Angel Gabriel
The messages were transcribed into text which is now know as the Qur'an
The Qur'an
Is the holy book of Islam
The Qur'an
Exists in the same form as the words were first recorded. it is not permitted to change the wording in any way
Muhammed is not a God
Muhammed is not worshiped
Muhammed was chosen to be God's
Last messenger
Muhammed was born in
AD570 at Mecca in Arabia
Muhammad was an orphan brought up by
His grandfather and uncle
Muhammed
Was a trader
Khadijah
Was Muhammad's employer and his first wife
At the time Muhammed received the messages from the Angel Gabriel
The people of Arabia worshipped many idols and drank alcohol and gambled
The revelations from God, passed on through Muhammed
Are the foundation of Islam
Muhammed called on the people of Mecca to
Stop worshipping other idols and to believe in the one and only God
The people of Mecca saw the teaching of Muhammed as
A threat to their way of life and persecuted Muhammad and his followers
Muhammad and his followers left Mecca for
Medina
The journey from Mecca to Medina is called
The Hijra
Hijra
Is the migration from Mecca to Medina
Muslims count their years from the date of
The migration (the Hijra)
Medina
Where Muhammed and his followers migrated to when they were driven out of Mecca
Medina became
The first Muslim state. Muhammed became not only a spiritual leader but a political leader
At the time of his death Muhammed
Controlled most of Arabia and the majority of the people had become Muslims.
Mecca
Where Muhammed received the message of God. He was driven from here to Medina but eventually returned
Muhammed died
At age 63. he was buried in Medina.
Images of Muhammed do not exist because
Muhammed would not allow his image to be drawn in case people began to idolise him and put him before the one God.
The Hadith
Collection of the sayings of Muhammed
The Sirah and Sunnah
Stories of the way Muhammed lived his life and conducted himself. they provide Muslims with a example and explanation of how they should live their lives
Important places for Muslims
Mecca and Medina
Islamic texts
The Qur'an
The Hadith
The Sirah
The Sunnah
Arabia was united
Under Muhammad's leadership
Abu Bakr
The first Caliph. Brought together the Prophet's revelations in one book.
Umar
The second Caliph. Muhammad's son-in-law
Uthman
The third Caliph. Had the written Qur'an published.
Ali
The fourth Caliph. Murdered in 661. Umayyad family appointed a Caliph and began a dynasty. Split in the Islamic world
Shi'ite
Comes from the word shia, which means "the party (of Ali)." They are mostly found in Iran and Iraq, and among the Palestinians
Sunni's
Believe that the position of Caliph should be a position to which one is elected by the religious leaders of the Islamic community, and not dependent on direct lineage from Mohammed.
75-90% of Muslims are
Sunni
The Ka'ba
The most important place of worship for Muslims.
Muslims believe that Jesus is a
Prophet
The ideology of Arabia before Muhammad's messages
Muruwah- Belonging to group , tribal control- helped to create a communal spirit essential to survival
A cube-shaped building in Mecca ( was used as a shrine to the tribal patron gods and minor deities in pre Islamic Mecca)
The Ka'ba
A supreme God who was the creator of life ; existed pre Islam
Allah
Polytheism
belief in multiple Gods
Judaism, Christianity and Islam
Have the same roots. All believe they are descended from Abraham.
Ramadan
ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting ( note-existed prior to Muhammed receiving messages- Muhammed was undertaking Ramadan when the Angel Gabriel appeared)
Caliph
A chief Muslim civil and religious leader; the successor of Muhammad.
Five Pillars of Islam
The five behaviours that form the foundation of Muslim life:belief that Allah is the one god, daily prayers, giving alms, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca
Fundamentalism
An extreme belief in the strict and literal interpretation of religious books or religious law.
Hajj
The Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah) in Saudi Arabia.
Imam
The person who leads prayer in a mosque
Islam
The religion founded by the prophet Muhammad in the 7th century C.E. There are two main branches: Shia and Sunni.
Koran (Qur'an)
The holy book of Islam. Believed to be the word of God (Allah) as dictated to Muhammad and written in Arabic.
Mosque
The Muslim place of worship
Ka'ba' Ka'bah (Ka'aba)
An ancient stone cubic structure in Mecca that is the holiest shrine in Islam and a unifying focus for Muslim worship.
Minaret
A tall tower, usually part of a mosque, from which the call to prayer is made. The person who makes the call to prayer is called a muezzin.
Muhammad (Mohammed)
The prophet who founded Islam in the 7th century C.E.
Monotheism
The belief that there is only one God.
Muslim
A person who follows the religion of Islam
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place that is greatly respected or has religious significance. A person who makes this journey is a pilgrim.
Polytheism
The belief that there are many Gods.
Ramadan
The ninth month of the Islamic year, during which there is fasting from sunrise to sunset.
Sharia
Islamic religious laws
Shia
One of the two main branches of Islam. Shia Muslims believe that Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, was the rightful successor to Muhammad.
Sunni
One of the two main branches of Islam. Sunni Muslims accept the first four Caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
Taliban
A fundamentalist Muslim movement that set up an Islamic state in Afghanistan in 1996.
Terrorism
The use of violence to achieve political goals.
Bedouins
A nomadic tribal people who live in the desert regions
Caravan
A group of people and their camels that travel together in the desert (often for safety)
Hajj
The pilgramage to Mecca made in life of a Muslim, one of the 5 pillars
Hijab
The headscarf worn by some Muslim wome
Imam
religious leader of prayer in a Mosque
Ka'aba
The most sacred shrine in Islam, focal point for prayer in Islam
Mecca/Makkah,
The most sacred place in Islam; location of the Ka'bah
Mihrab
The wall niche or alcove that is a facing Mecca inside a mosque
Minbar
The stair or pulpit-like place from which the Imam leads prayer
Muezzin
the man that calls the worshippers to pray from a minaret tower
Minaret
The tower from which a Muezzin calls worshippers to pray 5x/day
Mosque
the building for worship for the Islamic faith
Muhammad,
the prophet and God's messenger, founded the faith of Islam
Ramadan
The 30 days that are reserved for fasting during the daylight hours
Wudu
The ritual washing done by followers of Islam before entering the mosque
Crusades
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
Dome of the Rock,Mosque in Jerusalem where Muhammad ascended to heaven
Mosque in Jerusalem where Muhammad ascended to heaven
Arabic
The Semitic language of the Arabs
Jerusalem
,A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Eid Al Fitr
Marks the end of Ramadan and the fasting. Very festive time. Eid al- fitr means recurring happiness
Muslim
A believer or follower of Islam
Allah
Muslim name for the one and only God
Oasis
A fertile place in a desert where there is water and vegetation
Abraham
the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation: considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
Islam
The religion practiced by Muslims; Islam means "submission to the will of God."
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
Hadith
book of stories about the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad, next to the Quran, lessons to help lead daily life
Shahada
Declaration of faith, one of the Five Pillar
Salat
One of the five pillars of Islam: praying 5 times a day (early morning, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, evening)
Zakat
The fourth pillar of Islam is almsgiving as an act of worship
Sawm
One of the five pillars of Islam: fasting during month of Ramadan (only daylight hours)
Five Pillars
Beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage
Caliph
Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
Sunni
One of the two main branches of orthodox Islam, largest group
Shiite
A muslim group that accepts only the descendants of muhammad's son-in-law ali as the true rulers of islam
Ihram
Two white cotton cloths worn by male Muslims on their pilgrimage to Mecca. Symbolic of the state of purity that all pilgrims assume while on the Hajj.