Lesson 9: Practice Exercises
Terms in this set (45)
(Use Table 11.1[Pg. 379] and the equation 1.00 in. + 25.4 mm to convert the following measurements.)
1) 59.8 in. Hg to psi
2) 7.35 psi to mm Hg
3.80 × 102 mm Hg
3) 1140 mm Hg to kPa
4) 19.0 psi to kPa
5) 202 kPa to psi
At atmospheric pressure, a balloon contains 2.00 L of nitrogen gas. How would the volume change if the Kelvin temperature were only 75 percent of its original value?
2.00 L × 0.75 = 1.50 L
A cylinder containing 32 g of oxygen gas is placed on a balance. The valve is opened and 16 g of gas are allowed to escape. How will the pressure change?
The new mass is half the old mass, so there are half the original number of gas
particles. Pressure is directly proportional to the number of particles, so the new
pressure must be half the original pressure.
Bacteria produce methane gas in sewage- treatment plants. This gas is often captured or burned. If a bacterial culture produces 60.0 mL of methane gas at 700.0 mm Hg, what volume would be produced at 760.0 mm Hg?
At one sewage-treatment plant, bacteria cultures produce 1000 L of methane gas per day at 1.0 atm pressure. What volume tank would be needed to store on day's production at 5.0 atm?
Hospitals buy 400-L cylinders of oxygen gas compressed at 150 atm. They administer oxygen to patients at 3.0 atm in a hyperbaric oxygen gen chamber. What volume of oxygen can a cylinder supply at this pressure?
If the valve in a tire pump with a volume of 0.78 L fails at a pressure of 9.00 atm, what would be the volume of air in the cylinder just before the valve fails?
The volume of a scuba tank is 10.0 L. It contains a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen at 290.0 atm. What volume of this mixture could the tank supply to a diver at 2.40 atm?
A 1.00-L balloon is filled with helium at 1.20 atm. If the balloon is squeezed into a 0.500-L beaker and doesn't burst, what is the pressure of the helium?
A balloon is filled with 3.0 L of helium at 310 K an 1 atm. The balloon is placed in an oven where the temperature reaches 340 K. What is the new volume of balloon?
A 4.0-L sample of methane gas i collected at 30.0 degrees C. Predict the volume of the sample at 0 degrees C.
A 25-L sample of nitrogen is heated from 110 degrees C to 260 degrees C. What volume will the sample occupy at the higher temperature?
The volume of a 16-g sample of oxygen is 11.2 L at 273 K and 1.00 atm. Predict the volume of the sample of 409 K.
The volume of a sample of argon is 8.5 mL at 15 degrees C and 101 kPa. What will its volume be at 0.00 degrees C and 101 kPa?
A 2.7-L sample of nitrogen is collected at 121 kPa and 288 K. If the pressure increases to 202 kPa and the temperature rises to 303 K, what volume will the nitrogen occupy?
A chunk of subliming carbon dioxide (dry ice) generates a 0.50-; sample of gaseous CO2 at 22 degrees C and 720 mm Hg. What volume will the carbon dioxide gas have at STP?
Explain how an air mattress support the weight of a person lying on it.
Lying on a mattress decreases the volume of the mattress and increases the
pressure. The increased pressure supports the weight added.
Why is it important to determine the volume of a gas at STP?
Determining the volume of a gas at STP allows it to be compared to other gases.
Name three ways to increase the pressure inside an oxygen tank.
raise the temperature, decrease the volume, and add more particles of gas
What Celsius temperature corresponds to absolute zero?
In a chemical plant, xenon hexfluoride is stored at STP. Express these conditions using the Kelvin scale.
273 K and 1 atm
A 12.0-L sample of gas is compressed into a tank of 25 degrees C and 4 atm. It is emptied into another storage tank of 3 atm. What do you expect the final temperature of the gas to be at its final volume?
25°C; 3 atm x 16L/12L = 4 atm
What physical conditions are specified by the term STP?
A gas is at 0°C and 1 atm pressure
What factors affect gas pressure?
temperature, number of particles, and volume
The passenger cabin of an airplane is pressurized. Explain hat this term means and why it is done.
The pressure of the atmosphere decreases as the altitude increases. To maintain a comfortable environment, the passenger compartment must be maintained at a
higher pressure than the outside air.
Explain why balloons filed with helium rise in air but balloons filled with carbon dioxide sink.
The density of helium is less than the density of air, and the density of carbon
dioxide is greater than the density of air.
At 1250 mm Hg and 75 degrees C, the volume of a sample of ammonia gas is 6.28 L. What volume would the ammonia occupy at STP?
The volume of a gas is 550 mL at 760 mm Hg. If the pressure is reduced to 380 mm Hg and the temperature is constant, what will be the new volume?
The volume of a gas at 101 kPa is 400 mL. If the pressure changes at constant temperature to 404 kPa, what will be the new volume?
The volume of a gas is 1.5 L at 27 degrees C and 1 atm. What volume will the gas occupy if the temperature is raised to 127 degrees C at constant pressure?
A 50-mL sample of krypton gas at STP is cooled to -73 degrees C at constant pressure. What will be the volume?
A sample of carbon dioxide is collected at STP. Its volume is 500 L. What volume will it have if the pressure is 380 mm Hg and the temperature is 100 degrees C?
A 120-mL sample of nitrogen is collected at 900 mm Hg and 0 degrees C. What volume will the nitrogen have when its temperature rises to 100 degrees C and the pressure increases to 15 atm?
How many liters of hydrogen will be needed to react completely with 10 L of oxygen in the composition reaction of hydrogen peroxide?
Compare the amount of oxygen you would receive in an HBO chamber with the amount you would receive breathing ordinary air.
15 times greater
Explain why the density of a popped kernel of popcorn is less than that of an unpopped kernel.
Density is mass divided by volume. A popped kernel has a slightly smaller mass and a much larger volume than an unpopped kernel, so the popped kernel has a lower density.
Would chlorine gas be suitable for weather balloons? Explain.
No; chlorine is heavier than air and poisonous.
What are allotropes? Name three elements that occur as allotropes. (Chapter 5)
Allotropes are forms of an element that differ in crystalline or molecular structure.
Examples are carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, and oxygen.
Can an atom of an element have six electrons in the 2p sublevel? (Chapter 7)
Yes, the second energy sublevel, or p sublevel, holds six electrons.
Classify the following bonds as ionic, covalent, or polar covalent using electronegativity values. (Chapter 9)
A. polar covalent
D. polar covalent.
How does an increased in atmospheric pressure affect the following? (Chapter 10)
a) the boiling point of water
b) the melting point of ice
A. increases the boiling point
B. slightly decreases the melting point
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