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116 terms

Prologue and Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
A reaction against a negative emphasis in psychology; a new focus on positive, adaptive, and creative aspects of human existence
Positive Psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems
Applied Psychology
A school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and to investigate how these elements are related.
Structuralism
Observation of one's own conscious experience
Introspection
school of thought asserting that psychology's major purpose was to investigate the function or purpose of consciousness
Functionalism
the theoretical orientation asserting that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Behaviorism
An observable activity or response by an organism
Stimulus
Examines behavioral processes in terms of the adaptive or survival value for a species
Evolutionary Psychology
The use of cognitive skills and strategies to increase the probability of a desirable outcome
Critical Thinking
The Darwinian Principle that characteristics that have a survival advantage for a species are more likely to be passed on to subsequent generations
Natural Selection
Freudian theory that explains personality and abnormal behavior in terms of unconscious processes
Psychoanalytic Theory
According to psychoanalytic theory, that portion of the mind containing thoughts, memories, and wishes not in awareness but nonetheless exerting a strong effect on human behavior
Unconscious
the psychological theory asserting that human beings are unique and fundamentally different from other animals
Humanism
The tendency to view one's own group as superior to other groups
ethnocentrism
Widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, and institutions that are transmitted socially across generations
Culture
The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
Clinical Psychology
Mental process or thinking
Cognition
The science that studies behavior and the physiological and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
Psychology
The branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
Psychiatry
The point of view that knowledge should be based on observation
Empiricism
A system of ideas used to link together or explain a set of observations
Theory
Any of the factors is an experiment that are controlled or observed by an experimenter or that in some other way affect the outcome
Variables
A tentative statement about the expected relationship between two or more variables
Hypothesis
precisely defines each variable in a study in term of the operations needed to produce or measure that variable
Operational Definition
Persons or animals whose behavior is being studied; means the same thing as participants
Subjects
Differing ways of conducting research, which include experiments,case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observations
Research Methods
A research method in which independent variables are manipulated and which permits casual interpretations
Experiment
A condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to observe its impact
Independent Variables
The variable that results from the manipulation in an experiment
Dependent Variables
The group in an experiment that that receives a treatment as part of the independent variable manipulation
Experimental Group
The group in an experiment that does not receive the treatment
Control Group
Any variables other than the independent variables that seem likely to influence the dependent measure in an experiment
Confounding Variables
Distribution of subjects in an experiment in which each subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition
Random Assignment
a link or association between variables such that one can be predicted from the other
Correlation
any variables other than the independent variables that seem likely to influence the dependent measure in an experiment
Correlation Coefficient
A research method in which the researcher observes behavior in the natural environment without directly intervening
Naturalistic Observation
As in-depth, generally subjective, investigation of an individual subject
Case Study
A questionnaire or interview used to gather information about specific aspects of subjects' behavior
Survey
mathematical techniques that help in organizing, summarizing, and interpreting numerical data
Statistics
Statistics helpful in organizing and summarizing (but not interpreting) data
Descriptive Statistics
Statistical procedures used to interpret data in an experiment and draw conclusions
Inferential Statistics
A statistical procedure that combines the results of many studies
Meta-Analysis
A descriptive statistic and measure of central tendency that always falls in the exact half-way point
Median
The arithmetic average
Mean
The score that occurs most frequently
Mode
The spread or dispersion of data, including the extent to which scores vary from the mean
Standard Deviation
A measure of variability in data
Extraneous Variables
A judgement inferred from statistics that the probability of the observed findings occurring by chance is very low
Statistical Significance
a repetition of a study to determine whether the previously obtained results can be duplicated
Replication
A group of subjects taken from a population
Sample
a larger group from which a sample is drawn and to which the researcher wishes to generalize
population
Exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn
Sampling Bias
Also known as subjects, the individuals whose behavior is systematically observed in study
Participants
Occurs when a researcher's expectations influence the results of the study
Experimenter Bias
Effects that occur when subjects experience a change due to their expectations ( or to a "fake' treatment)
Placebo Effect
The tendency to respond in a particular way (e.g., agreeing) that is unrelated to the content of questions asked
Response Set
Occurs when an extraneous variable makes it difficult to sort out the effects of the independent variable
Variability
The tendency to answer questions about oneself in a socially approved manner
Social Desirability Bias
A research strategy in which neither the subjects nor experimenters know which condition or treatment the subjects are in
Double-Blind Procedure
A periodical that publishes ideas used to explain a set of observations
Journal
A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
theory
Support of a particular point of view through the use personal (and frequently vivid) stories
Anecdotal Evidence
According to your text, the best definition of psychology is...?
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
The empirical approach to psychological research is best reflected in which of the following statements?
A psychological study is conducted through careful observation and scientifically based research
Dr. Smith works at a research facility where her team is trying to establish a link between a specific protein and a specific mental illness. Dr. Smith is engaged in which type of professional psychology?
Experimental Psychology
Dr. Lee is a medical doctor who works in a hospital setting and specializes in diagnosing and treating people with psychological disorders. He can prescribe medication to help in the treatment of mental disorders. Dr. Lee is most likely a...?
psychiatrist
Dr. Jones,a developmental psychological, has read a recent research article about children's taste preferences, which concluded that most children do not like to eat very spicy foods. When the nearby nursery school asked her advice about what to prepare for the children's snacks, Dr. Jones suggested not including any spicy foods. Dr. Jones is practicing ______ psychology?
applied
The contemporary view of psychology has evolved from all fields of study with the exception of the field of...?
economics
Most psychologists consider the era of modern psychology to have begun with which of the following events?
Wilhelm Wundt establishes a research lab to study the structures of the mind in 1979
Functionalism is the historical school of psychology that focused its attention on?
the belief that mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function
The behaviorist movement believed that psychology should focus on...?
observable actions and associations
An introspective look at the Necker Cube illustrates that humans do not sense the world as it really is because...?
humans add personal interpretation to experiences
Dr. Ortiz studies the effect of neurotransmitters, chemicals that are secreted in the brain, on human behavior. She is best described as a ___ psychologist.
biological
Dr. Amarosa is studying the relationship between the color of words presented to person and the quantity of words that person remembers. He is best describes as a ___ psychologist.
cognitive
Dr. Schulman believes that human behavior is generated in our unconscious minds and is the result of unresolved conflicts and desires. She views human behavior and mental processes from the ____ perspective.
Psychodynamic
Wilhelm Wundt
Founded experimental psychology and the first experimental psychology laboratory.
G. Stanley Hall
Established the first American research laboratory, launched America's first psychological journal, was first president of the APA.
William James
Chief architect of functionalism; described a "stream of consciousness"
John B. Watson
Founded behaviorism
Sigmund Freud
Devised the theory and technique of psychoanalysis
B.F. Skinner
Identified operant conditioning.
Carl Rogers
A major proponent of "humanistic" psychology.
Structuralism is the historical school of psychology that asserted that the purpose of psychology was to?
examine the purpose of conscious processes
Of the two parents of psychology, physiology and philosophy, which provided the method? What is the method?
physiology; observation and science
Who is Wilhelm Wundt?
He founded the first experimental laboratory
For John B. Watson, the appropriate subject matter of psychology was?
animal behavior
Which of the following represents a major breakthrough in the development of applied psychology?
Binet's development of the intelligence test
Within academic psychology, Freud's ideas initially encountered resistance he emphasized...
the unconscious
Which of the following would be considered the major principle of operant conditioning?
humans and other animals tend to repeat responses followed by positive outcomes
Which of the following theorists would tend to emphasize explanations in terms of freedom and potential for personal growth?
Carl Rogers
Recent Research trends in psychology involve two areas largely ignored by early behaviorists. These two areas are:...?
Cognition and physiological processes
Which core psychological research area is primarily devoted to the study of such topics as memory, problem solving, and thinking?
cognitive
Critical thinking includes?
analysis of problems in terms of scientific principles, making decisions based on formal and informal logic, and thinking that includes consideration of conflicting interpretations
The assertion that "psychology is empirical" means that psychology is based on?
observation
Contemporary psychologists generally assume that human behavior is determined by?
heredity and environment acting jointly
Dr. Jones believes there is a relationship between the amount of chocolate a child eats and the hyperactivity level of the child. This belief is a...
theory
In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated is called the____ variable.
independent
Dexter works for a magazine and is told by his editor to write an article on test scores in the local elementary school. He divides the students into groups based on grade level. He then examines the local test scores. In this study, the independent variable is the ____.
grade level of the students
Dexter works for a magazine and is told by his editor to write an article on test scores in the local elementary school. He divides the students into groups based on grade level. He then examines the local test scores. In this study, the dependent variable is the ____.
test scores of the students
Professor Ripken is interested in studying children's social behaviors. To do this, he visits a preschool and carefully monitors and record the children's behavior. Professor Ripken is engaged in what type of research?
Naturalistic Observation
What type of research design would be used to study whether happy people are healthier?
behavioral
The type of bias that leads observes to experts certain outcomes is called _____ bias.
confirmation
The ____ approves research done by psychologists at most universities.
institutional review board
Rupert wants to learn whether men or women are better drivers. To determine this, he decided that he will measure driving ability by examining the number of tickets that people have been received. Thus, he is using the number of tickets as the basis of the___.
operational definition
Jason is studying visualization in high school athletes. He recruits participants from football, baseball and gymnastics at a local high school. he also recruits participants from teenagers at the mall who report sport participation. His population of interest is ____.
teen athletes
Deception is allowed by the APA code of Ethics if___?
The participants are thoroughly debriefed.
Which of the following is a major assumption of science?
Events occur in a relatively orderly or predictable manner
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. What is the independent variable?
the mood (degree of happiness)
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. What is the dependent variable?
the mood
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. What is the confounding variable?
day of the week
in looking through some medical records, you find that there is a strong relationship between depression and chronic pain: the stronger the physical pain that people report, the higher their scores on an inventory that measures depression. which of the following conclusions are justified?
depression tends to produce chronic pain, chronic pain tends to produce depression, both chronic pain and depression result from unknown third factor.
what is the mode of the following data? 2,3,3,3,5,5,7,12
3
what is the median of the following data? 1,3,4,4,5,6,9.
4
researchers find a negative relationship between alcohol consumption and speed of response: the more alcohol consumed, the slower the response speed. which of the following fictitious statistics could possibly represent that correlation?
.05
an instructor wishes to find out whether a new teaching method is superior to his usual procedures, so he conducts an experiment. everyone in his classes is quite excited about the prospect of the learning under the new procedure, but of course he cannot administer the new teaching method to everyone, so some students are dissapointed. a random half of the students receive the new method and remaining method receive the old. what is the most obvious flaw in this experiment?
placebo effects or experimenter bias.
what procedure helps correct for experimenter bias?
use of the double-blind procedure.