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1.unfavorable or antagonistic in purpose or effect: adverse criticism.
2.opposing one's interests or desire: adverse circumstances.
3.being or acting in a contrary direction; opposed or opposing: adverse winds.
4.opposite; confronting: the adverse page.


1.pertaining to a sense of the beautiful or to the science of aesthetics.
2.having a sense of the beautiful; characterized by a love of beauty.
3.pertaining to, involving, or concerned with pure emotion and sensation as opposed to pure intellectuality.


to make worse or more severe; intensify, as anything evil, disorderly, or troublesome: to __a grievance; to aggravate an illness.


a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication: an allusion to Shakespeare.

Amend alter, modify, rephrase, or add to or subtract from (a motion, bill, constitution, etc.) by formal procedure: Congress may amend the proposed tax bill. change for the better; improve: to amend one's ways. remove or correct faults in; rectify.


1.a person empowered to decide matters at issue; judge; umpire.
2.a person who has the sole or absolute power of judging or determining.


1.subject to individual will or judgment without restriction; contingent solely upon one's discretion: an arbitrary decision.
2.decided by a judge or arbiter rather than by a law or statute.


1.movement upward from a lower to a higher state, degree, grade, or status; advancement: His ascent to the governorship came after a long political career.
2.the act of climbing or traveling up: Three climbers attempted the ascent of Mount Rainier.


1.a person who dedicates his or her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals and practices extreme self-denial or self-mortification for religious reasons.
2.a person who leads an austerely simple life, especially one who abstains from the normal pleasures of life or denies himself or herself material satisfaction.
3.(in the early Christian church) a monk; hermit.

Assent agree or concur; subscribe to (often followed by to ): to assent to a statement. give in; yield; concede: Assenting to his demands, I did as I was told.


having a strong feeling of opposition, antipathy, repugnance, etc.; opposed: He is not averse to having a drink now and then.


verb prohibit, forbid, or bar; interdict: to ban nuclear weapons; The dictator banned all newspapers and books that criticized his regime.
2.the act of prohibiting by law; interdiction.
3.informal denunciation or prohibition, as by public opinion: society's ban on racial discrimination.


1.a person or thing that ruins or spoils: Gambling was the bane of his existence.
2.a deadly poison (often used in combination, as in the names of poisonous plants): wolfsbane; henbane.
3.death; destruction; ruin.


1.a closely woven, heavy cloth of cotton, hemp, or linen, used for tents, sails, etc.
2.a piece of this or similar material on which a painting is made.
3.a tent, or tents collectively.

Canvass solicit votes, subscriptions, opinions, or the like from. examine carefully; investigate by inquiry; discuss; debate.


1.the wealth, whether in money or property, owned or employed in business by an individual, firm, corporation, etc. accumulated stock of such wealth.


1.the building in Washington, D.C., used by the Congress of the U.S. for its sessions.
2.( often lowercase ) a building occupied by a state legislature.
3.the ancient temple of Jupiter at Rome, on the Capitoline.

Censor official who examines books, plays, news reports, motion pictures, radio and television programs, letters, cablegrams, etc., for the purpose of suppressing parts deemed objectionable on moral, political, military, or other grounds.
2.any person who supervises the manners or morality of others.


1.strong or vehement expression of disapproval: The newspapers were unanimous in their _of the tax proposal. official reprimand, as by a legislative body of one of its members.


pleased, especially with oneself or one's merits, advantages, situation, etc., often without awareness of some potential danger or defect; self-satisfied: The voters are too complacent to change the government.


inclined or disposed to please; obliging; agreeable or gracious; compliant: the most complaisant child I've ever met.


1.something that completes or makes perfect: A good wine is a __to a good meal.
2.the quantity or amount that completes anything: We now have a full __of packers.
3.either of two parts or things needed to complete the whole; counterpart.

Compliment expression of praise, commendation, or admiration: A sincere _boosts one's morale.
2.a formal act or expression of civility, respect, or regard: The mayor paid him the _of escorting him.

Consul official appointed by the government of one country to look after its commercial interests and the welfare of its citizens in another country.
2.either of the two chief magistrates of the ancient Roman republic.


deserving or worthy of contempt; despicable


showing or expressing contempt or disdain; scornful.


1.of regular or frequent recurrence; often repeated; very frequent: continual bus departures.
2.happening without interruption or cessation; continuous in time.


1.uninterrupted in time; without cessation: continuous coughing during the concert.
2.being in immediate connection or spatial relationship: a continuous series of blasts; a continuous row of warehouses.

Cosmopolitan from local, provincial, or national ideas, prejudices, or attachments; at home all over the world.
2.of or characteristic of a cosmopolite.
3.belonging to all the world; not limited to just one part of the world.

Council assembly of persons summoned or convened for consultation, deliberation, or advice.
2.a body of persons specially designated or selected to act in an advisory, administrative, or legislative capacity: the governor's _on housing.


1.advice; opinion or instruction given in directing the judgment or conduct of another.
2.interchange of opinions as to future procedure; consultation; deliberation.


1.capable of being believed; believable: a credible statement.
2.worthy of belief or confidence; trustworthy: a credible witness.


bringing or deserving credit, honor, reputation, or esteem.

Demur make objection, especially on the grounds of scruples; take exception; object: They wanted to make him the treasurer, but he demurred.
2.Law . to interpose a demurrer.
3.Archaic . to linger; hesitate.


1.characterized by shyness and modesty; reserved.
2.affectedly or coyly decorous, sober, or sedate.

Deprecate express earnest disapproval of. urge reasons against; protest against (a scheme, purpose, etc.). depreciate; belittle.
4.Archaic . to pray for deliverance from.

Depreciate reduce the purchasing value of (money). lessen the value or price of. claim depreciation on (a property) for tax purposes. represent as of little value or merit; belittle.


1.unbiased by personal interest or advantage; not influenced by selfish motives: a disinterested decision by the referee.
2.not interested; indifferent.


1.a person or thing that dives.
2.a person who makes a business of diving, as for pearl oysters or to examine sunken vessels.
3.British . a loon.
4.any of several other birds noted for their skill in diving.


1.of a different kind, form, character, etc.; unlike: a wide range of diverse opinions.
2.of various kinds or forms; multiform.


to draw or bring out or forth; educe; evoke: to elicit the truth; to elicit a response with a question.

Emend edit or change (a text). free from faults or errors; correct.


1.high in station, rank, or repute; prominent; distinguished: eminent statesmen.
2.conspicuous, signal, or noteworthy: eminent fairness.
3.lofty; high: eminent peaks.
4.prominent; projecting; protruding: an eminent nose.

Equable from many changes or variations; uniform: an equable climate; an equable temperament.
2.uniform in operation or effect, as laws.


1.characterized by equity or fairness; just and right; fair; reasonable: equitable treatment of all citizens.
2.Law .
a.pertaining to or valid in equity.
b.pertaining to the system of equity, as distinguished from the common law.

Exalt raise in rank, honor, power, character, quality, etc.; elevate: He was exalted to the position of president. praise; extol: to exalt someone to the skies. stimulate, as the imagination: The lyrics of Shakespeare exalted the audience.

Exult show or feel a lively or triumphant joy; rejoice exceedingly; be highly elated or jubilant: They exulted over their victory.
2.Obsolete . to leap, especially for joy.

Formally a formal manner: The store was formally opened on Tuesday. regards form; in form: It may be formally correct, but it is substantively wrong.

Formerly time past; in an earlier period or age; previously: a custom formerly observed.
2.Obsolete . in time just past; just now.


1.the largest of the anthropoid apes, Gorilla gorilla, terrestrial and vegetarian, of western equatorial Africa and the Kivu highlands, comprising the subspecies G. g. gorilla (western lowland gorilla), G. g. graueri (eastern lowland gorilla), and G. g. beringei (mountain gorilla): now rare. ugly, brutish person.


1.a person who is fond of good eating, often indiscriminatingly and to excess.
2.a gourmet; epicure.


a person who cultivates a discriminating palate for the enjoyment of good food and drink


1.a member of a band of irregular soldiers that uses guerrilla warfare, harassing the enemy by surprise raids, sabotaging communication and supply lines, etc.

Hail cheer, salute, or greet; welcome. acclaim; approve enthusiastically: The crowds hailed the conquerors. They hailed the recent advances in medicine. call out to in order to stop, attract attention, ask aid, etc.: to hail a cab.


free from disease or infirmity; robust; vigorous: hale and hearty men in the prime of life.


1.conducive to health; wholesome or salutary: a healthful diet.


1.possessing or enjoying good health or a sound and vigorous mentality: a healthy body; a healthy mind.
2.pertaining to or characteristic of good health, or a sound and vigorous mind: a healthy appearance; healthy attitudes.
3.conducive to good health; healthful: healthy recreations.


1.not legally permitted or authorized; unlicensed; unlawful.
2.disapproved of or not permitted for moral or ethical reasons.


1.something that deceives by producing a false or misleading impression of reality.
2.the state or condition of being deceived; misapprehension. instance of being deceived.


1.likely to occur at any moment; impending: Her death is imminent.
2.projecting or leaning forward; overhanging.

Imply indicate or suggest without being explicitly stated: His words implied a lack of faith.
2.(of words) to signify or mean. involve as a necessary circumstance: Speech implies a speaker.
4.Obsolete . to enfold.

Incredible extraordinary as to seem impossible: incredible speed.
2.not credible; hard to believe; unbelievable: The plot of the book is incredible.


1.not credulous; disinclined or indisposed to believe; skeptical.
2.indicating or showing unbelief: an incredulous smile.


1.originating in and characteristic of a particular region or country; native (often followed by to ): the plants indigenous to Canada; the indigenous peoples of southern Africa.
2.innate; inherent; natural (usually followed by to ): feelings indigenous to human beings.


1.lacking food, clothing, and other necessities of life because of poverty; needy; poor; impoverished.
2.Archaic .
a.deficient in what is requisite.
b.destitute (usually followed by of ).

Infer derive by reasoning; conclude or judge from premises or evidence: They inferred his displeasure from his cool tone of voice.
2.(of facts, circumstances, statements, etc.) to indicate or involve as a conclusion; lead to. guess; speculate; surmise. hint; imply; suggest.



Ingenuous from reserve, restraint, or dissimulation; candid; sincere.
2.artless; innocent; naive.
3.Obsolete . honorable or noble.


the act or ceremony of interring; burial.

Internment act or instance of interning.
2.the state of being interned; confinement

Irritate excite to impatience or anger; annoy.
2.Physiology, Biology . to excite (a living system) to some characteristic action or function.


1.(chiefly in British and technical usage) corn1 ( def. 1 ) .
2.a pale yellow resembling the color of corn.




1.inclined or disposed to war; warlike: The ancient Romans were a martial people.
2.of, suitable for, or associated with war or the armed forces: martial music.
3.characteristic of or befitting a warrior: a martial stride.


1.a confusing network of intercommunicating paths or passages; labyrinth.
2.any complex system or arrangement that causes bewilderment, confusion, or perplexity: Her petition was lost in a maze of bureaucratic red tape.
3.a state of bewilderment or confusion.
4.a winding movement, as in dancing.


1.telling lies, especially habitually; dishonest; lying; untruthful: a mendacious person.
2.false or untrue: a mendacious report.


deserving praise, reward, esteem, etc.; praiseworthy: to receive a gift for meritorious service.


1.of, noting, or characteristic of a metropolis or its inhabitants, especially in culture, sophistication, or in accepting and combining a wide variety of people, ideas, etc.
2.of or pertaining to a large city, its surrounding suburbs, and other neighboring communities: the New York metropolitan area.
3.pertaining to or constituting a mother country.


1.of pleasing personal appearance; handsome or comely; attractive.
2.having an agreeable or pleasing personality; affable; amiable; sociable.


1.of, pertaining to, or coming as from a particular person; individual; private: a personal opinion.
2.relating to, directed to, or intended for a particular person: a personal favor; one's personal life; a letter marked "Personal."
3.intended for use by one person: a personal car.
4.referring or directed to a particular person in a disparaging or offensive sense or manner, usually involving character, behavior, appearance, etc.: personal remarks.


1.having keen mental perception and understanding; discerning: to exhibit perspicacious judgment.
2.Archaic . having keen vision.


1.clearly expressed or presented; lucid.


1.capable of being done, effected, or put into practice, with the available means; feasible: a practicable solution.
2.capable of being used: a practicable gift.
3.Theater . (of a stage property or part of a set) designed or constructed for actual use; a practicable window; practicable water faucets.


1.of or pertaining to practice or action: practical mathematics.
2.consisting of, involving, or resulting from practice or action: a practical application of a rule.
3.of, pertaining to, or concerned with ordinary activities, business, or work: practical affairs.
4.adapted or designed for actual use; useful: practical instructions.


1.wastefully or recklessly extravagant: prodigal expenditure. or yielding profusely; lavish (usually followed by of or with ): prodigal of smiles; prodigal with money.
3.lavishly abundant; profuse: nature's prodigal resources.


1.extraordinary in size, amount, extent, degree, force, etc.: a prodigious research grant.
2.wonderful or marvelous: a prodigious feat.
3.abnormal; monstrous.
4.Obsolete . ominous.


1.the foretelling or prediction of what is to come.
2.something that is declared by a prophet, especially a divinely inspired prediction, instruction, or exhortation.
3.a divinely inspired utterance or revelation: oracular prophecies.
4.the action, function, or faculty of a prophet.

Prophesy foretell or predict. indicate beforehand. declare or foretell by or as if by divine inspiration. utter in prophecy or as a prophet.


1.of or pertaining to a king; royal: the regal power.
2.befitting or resembling a king.
3.stately; splendid.

Regale entertain lavishly or agreeably; delight. entertain with choice food or drink.

Respectfully entertain lavishly or agreeably; delight. entertain with choice food or drink.

Respectively precisely the order given; sequentially.
2.(of two or more things, with reference to two or more things previously mentioned) referring or applying to in a parallel or sequential way: Joe and Bob escorted Betty and Alice, respectively.


1.authoritative permission or approval, as for an action.
2.something that serves to support an action, condition, etc.
3.something that gives binding force, as to an oath, rule of conduct, etc.


1.holiness, saintliness, or godliness.
2.sacred or hallowed character: the inviolable sanctity of the temple.
3.a sacred thing.


1.inclined to associate with or be in the company of others.
2.friendly or agreeable in company; companionable.
3.characterized by agreeable companionship: a sociable evening at the home of friends.


1.pertaining to, devoted to, or characterized by friendly companionship or relations: a social club.
2.seeking or enjoying the companionship of others; friendly; sociable; gregarious.
3.of, pertaining to, connected with, or suited to polite or fashionable society: a social event.


a three-dimensional work of art, as a representational or abstract form, carved in stone or wood, molded in a plastic material, cast in bronze, or the like.


1.the height of a human or animal body.
2.the height of any object. of development attained; level of achievement: a minister of great stature.


1.having or showing no feeling of interest; indifferent.
2.not personally concerned in something.


1.of, pertaining to, or designating a city or town. in a city.
3.characteristic of or accustomed to cities; citified: He is an urban type.


1.having the polish and suavity regarded as characteristic of sophisticated social life in major cities: an urbane manner.
2.reflecting elegance, sophistication, etc., especially in expression: He maintained an urbane tone in his letters.


1.willing to sell one's influence, especially in return for a bribe; open to bribery; mercenary: a venal judge. to be purchased, as by a bribe: venal acquittals.
3.associated with or characterized by bribery: a venal administration; venal agreements.

Venial to be forgiven or pardoned; not seriously wrong, as a sin ( opposed to mortal).
2.excusable; trifling; minor: a venial error; a venial offense.

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