APUSH Unit 8 Vocab
Terms in this set (28)
Landmark Supreme Court decision that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and abolished racial segregation in public schools. The Court reasoned that "separate" was inherently "unequal," rejecting the foundation of the Kim Crow system of racial segregation was the first major step towards the legal end of racial discrimination and a major accomplishment for the Civil Rights Movement.
Brown vs Board of Education
The abolishment of racial segregation, which happened due to the work of Civil Rights leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany, later became President.
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court.
US policy that stated the US would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country. Restatement of the containment policy.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba.
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
Vietnamese nationalist and communist whose defeat of the French led to calls for American military intervention in Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh
The Democratic nomination for the 1960 presidential election; he won with just enough delegates behind him for the nomination. He was the first Catholic presidential candidate since Al Smith in 1928.
John F. Kennedy
Eisenhower's secretary of state, against Communism.
John Foster Dulles
The doctrine upon which Eisenhower and Dulles based American nuclear policy in the 1950s.
A brand of vitriolic, fear mongering, anti-communism associated with the career of Senator Joseph McCarthy. In the early 1950's, Senator McCarthy used his position in Congress to baselessly accuse high-ranking government officials and other Americans of conspiracy with communism. The term named after him refers to the dangerous forces of unfairness and fear wrought by anti-communist paranoia.
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Military-Industrial Complex (MIC)
After the Russian satellite "Sputnik" was successfully launched, there was a critical comparison of the Russian to the American education system. The American education system was already seen as too easygoing. So in 1958 Congress authorized $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the purpose of improving the teaching of the sciences and languages.
National Defense and Education Act
Anti-communist leader who set up a Pro-American government to block Ho Chi Minh's expected takeover of all Vietnam.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Ruled the USSR from 1958-1964, lessened government control of soviet citizens; sought peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation.
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
An Asian alliance, set up by Secretary Dulles on the model of NATO, to help support the anti-communist regime in South Vietnam.
South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
Soviet satellite, this scientific achievement marked the first time human beings had put a man-made object into orbit and pushed the USSR noticeably ahead of the US in the Space Race.
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially.
The dividing line between North and South Korea, across which the fighting between communists and United Nations forces ebbed and flowed during the Korean War.
Farming and related activities considered commercial enterprises, especially large corporate agricultural ventures.
Demographic explosion from births to returning soldiers and others who had put off starting families during the war. This large generation of new Americans forced the expansion of many institutions such as schools and universities.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
This group was created after WWII to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad, conspiracies, and meddling as well.
America's strategy against the Soviet Union based on ideas of George Kennan. The doctrine declared that the Soviet Union and communism were inherently expansionist and had to be stopped from spreading through both military and political pressure. Containment guided American foreign policy throughout most of the Cold War.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Physician who provided advice on child rearing to baby-boomers' parents after WW II.
Employment Act of 1946
Legislation declaring that the government's economic policy should aim to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power, as well as to keep inflation low. A general commitment that was much shorter on specific targets and rules than its liberal creators had wished. The Act created the Council of Economic Advisers to provide the president with data and recommendations to make economic policy.
Truman's extensive social program introduced in his 1949 message to Congress. Republicans and Southern Democrats kept much of his vision from being enacted, except for raising the minimum wage, providing for more public housing, and extending old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries under the Social Security Act.