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polar molecule

opposite charges on opposite sides


The ability of water molecules to stick to each other


the ability of water molecules to stick to other surfaces

surface tension

measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

kinetic energy

the energy of motion


total kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter


measure of the heat of intensity due to the average kinetic energy of molecules in a body of matter

acid precipitation

rain, snow, or fog more highly acidic than 5.6

Celsius scale

100 degrees water boils, 37 degrees body temperature 0 degrees water freezes


amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius


amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree celsius


derived unit of energy; work; heat; n.m

specific heat

the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree celsius

evaporative cooling

cooling of a liquid's surface when a ligquid evaporates


a liquid that is completely homogenous mixture of two or more substances


substance dissolved in a solution


dissolving agent of a solution

aqueous solution

solution in which water is the solvent


property of having an affinity for water


not having an affinity for water and not being water-soluble


amount of a substance that has a mass in grams numerically equivalent to its molecular weight in daltons molecular weight

hydrogen ion

proton with a +1 charge


number of moles of solute per liter of solution

hydroxide ion

water molecule that lost a proton and has a net negative charge


something that increases the relative H+ of a solution


substance that reduces the relative H+ of a solution

pH scale

scale used to measure the degree of acidity from 0-14


substance that minimizes large sudden changes in pH

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