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AP Bio Chapter 3

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polar molecule
opposite charges on opposite sides
cohesion
The ability of water molecules to stick to each other
adhesion
the ability of water molecules to stick to other surfaces
surface tension
measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
heat
total kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
temperature
measure of the heat of intensity due to the average kinetic energy of molecules in a body of matter
acid precipitation
rain, snow, or fog more highly acidic than 5.6
Celsius scale
100 degrees water boils, 37 degrees body temperature 0 degrees water freezes
calorie
amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius
kilocalorie
amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree celsius
joule
derived unit of energy; work; heat; n.m
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree celsius
evaporative cooling
cooling of a liquid's surface when a ligquid evaporates
solution
a liquid that is completely homogenous mixture of two or more substances
solute
substance dissolved in a solution
solvent
dissolving agent of a solution
aqueous solution
solution in which water is the solvent
hydrophilic
property of having an affinity for water
hydrophobic
not having an affinity for water and not being water-soluble
mole
amount of a substance that has a mass in grams numerically equivalent to its molecular weight in daltons molecular weight
hydrogen ion
proton with a +1 charge
molarity
number of moles of solute per liter of solution
hydroxide ion
water molecule that lost a proton and has a net negative charge
acid
something that increases the relative H+ of a solution
base
substance that reduces the relative H+ of a solution
pH scale
scale used to measure the degree of acidity from 0-14
buffer
substance that minimizes large sudden changes in pH