MAN320F Unit 8 - Chapter 14


Terms in this set (...)

Trait approaches
assume that leaders are endowed with certain traits or qualities associated with leader status and success.
Early trait approach vs. Later:
Early = based on personality, needs, motives, values, and even physical characteristics.
Later = Big five dimensions of personality
1. extraversion
2. conscientiousness
3. emotional stability
4. and openness to experience
The behavioral approach
focuses on identifying categories of relevant leadership behavior and examining their effects on performance and other outcomes.
Two meta-categories of behavioral approach:
1. relations-oriented behavior
2. task-oriented behavior
Relations-oriented behavior,
also known as consideration, involves concern for relationships and socioemotional support.
- focus = on employee-centered or socioemotional concerns.
Task-oriented behavior,
also known as initiating structure, involves providing direction and enforcing performance standards needed to drive production.
- concerns with management
Born/made argument in leadership:
1. if born is right= focus on selection by screening new hires
2. if made is right= focus on development by training
Contingency approaches
state that the relationship between leader behavior and leadership effectiveness depends on the situation.
Leadership behavioral styles (independent variable): (4)
1. directive
2. supportive
3. achievement-oriented
4. participative
Directive leadership
provides clarity and direction for subordinates
- it is needed when subordinates want guidance and direction in their jobs. It helps increases role clarity, self-efficacy, effort, and performance.
Supportive leadership
promotes a friendly work climate by focusing on subordinate needs and well-being.
- needed when subordinates want emotional help, not task help.
Achievement-oriented leadership
is motivation focused and builds subordinates' confidence to achieve high standards through its focus on excellence and goal setting.
- needed for challenging tasks or when subordinates need to take initiative.
Participative leadership
is a democratic form of leadership that consults with subordinates and takes their suggestions into account before making decisions.
- best when subordinates need limited direction and support. It allows employees to provide input. When tasks are repetitive, nonauthoritarian subordinates appreciate being involved to help break up the monoton
Common leadership effectiveness variables in Contingency model (dependent variable): (4)
1. subordinate job satisfaction
2. performance
3. subordinate acceptance of leader
4. subordinate motivation
Subordinate characteristics/Task and leader characteristics (moderator variable):
1. Subordinate characteristics:
• Subordinate ability/follower readiness
• Authoritarianism (open- or closed- mindedness)
• Locus of control (internal or external orientation)
2. Task and leader characteristics
• Task structure (high or low) •
Leader position power (strong or
• Quality of leader-member relations
(good or bad)
How situational variables are assessed: (3)
1. follower readiness
2. task structure
3. leader position power
Follower readiness
is the amount of experience or ability the follower has to do the job.
Task structure
describes whether the task is highly defined (high structure) or ambiguous (low structure).
Leader position power
describes the amount of formal authority associated with the position of the leader. EX: Darshan vs. Juan
means the leader cannot change his or her style and therefore needs to change the situation to match the style.
A match can be achieved in two ways:
1. selecting managers with the appropriate style to fit the situation.
2. training managers to change the situation to make it fit their leadership
Problem with contingency approaches:
1. guidelines are too broad and therefore not informative.
-- frustrations with these limitations lead to the "doom and gloom" period in leadership research.
is a special personal quality or attractiveness that enables an individual to influence others.
relational process with charismatic leadership "fire" produced by three elements: (3)
1. spark: a leader with charismatic qualities
2. flammables: followers who are open or susceptible to charisma
3. oxygen: an environment such as crisis or a situation of unrest among followers that is conductive to charisma
Charisma needs to be used from a _______________ ___________ power orientation rather than a ___________ ____________ one.
1. Socialized charismatics
2. personalized charismatics
Socialized charismatics
focus on power for collective (e.g., societal) rather than personal benefit.
EX: people wanting to do good for society
Personalized charismatics
focus on power for personal rather than collective benefit. EX: dictators
Power distance
is the extent to which followers see leaders as having much higher status than them.
-- reducing this will help charismatic leader address their problems.
Power wielders
use power to advance their own interests without considering followers' needs. EX: politicians
Transformational leadership
involves inspirational relationships in which both leaders and followers are positively transformed in the process.
Transactional leadership
involves a focus on exchanging valued goods in return for something leaders want.
Bass's transformational leadership: (4)
involves leaders motivating followers to transcend self-interest for the sake of the organization or team.

1. Idealized influence: Increases degree of followers' identification with the leader.
2. Inspirational leadership: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols and expresses important purposes in simple ways.
3. Intellectual stimulation: Influencing followers to look for more creative solutions.
4. Individualized consideration: Provides everyone personal attention, and coaches and advises.
Bass's transactional leadership: (4)
refers to the exchange relationship between leaders and followers to meet their own self-interests.

1. Contingent reward: Leader clarifies what the follower needs to do to be rewarded for the effort.
2. Active management-by-exception:
Leader monitors the follower's performance and takes corrective action when needed.
3. Passive leadership: Leader waits for problems to arise before taking corrective action.
4. Laissez-faire: Leader avoids taking any action
Heroic leadership views
see leadership as the result of acts of great leaders who inspire and motivate others to accomplish extraordinary things.Problem? Leaders are seen as knights while followers as peasants.
Complex adaptive systems
are systems that adapt and evolve in the process of interacting with dynamic environments.
is an organizing form in which division of labor, specification of titles and duties, and hierarchical reporting relationships provide efficiency and control.
- used in the industrial age
Bureaucratic assumptions (past): (7)
1. Environments stable, controllable
2. Hierarchical organizing systems using centralized control
3. Coordination from hierarchy, formal rules, regulations
4. Change is linear, predictable
5. Value = efficiency and reliability
6. Direction set by a few leaders
7. Leaders are experts, authorities
In today environment, Bureaucracy =
no longer working.
Complexity assumptions (present): (7)
1. Environments dynamic, uncontrollable
2. Self-organizing systems with no centralized control
3. Coordination from interactions within system, simple rules
4. Change is nonlinear, unpredictable
5. Value = adaptability and responsiveness
6. Direction set by participation of many
7. Leaders are facilitators, supporters
Three types of leadership systems in orgs: (3)
1. administrative leadership
2. entrepreneurial leadership
3. adaptive leadership
Administrative leadership
occurs in formal, managerial roles and focuses on alignment and control aimed at driving business results. (top-down)
Entrepreneurial leadership
fuels innovation, adaptability, and change. (bottom-up)
Adaptive leadership
operates in the interface between the administrative and entrepreneurial systems and fosters conditions for emergence.
Leadership ethics
is the study of ethical problems and challenges distinctive to and inherent in the processes, practices, and outcomes of leading and following.
The profit motive
is based on Milton Friedman's view that the sole purpose of business is to make money.
The shared value view
states that organizations should create economic value in a way that also creates value for society.
Servant leadership
is a view in which servant leaders selflessly serve others first. Ex: Bianca serving Linda.
Characteristics of Servant leadership: (8)
1. Empowerment:fosteringaproactive,self-confidentattitudeamongfollowers
2. Accountability: showing confidence in followers by giving them responsibility and then holding them accountable for performance; allows them control and ensures they know what is expected of them
3. Standing back: giving priority to the interest of others first and giving them necessary support and credit
4. Humility: the ability to put one's own accomplishments and talents in a proper perspective and remain modest
5. Authenticity: being true to oneself, adherence to a generally perceived moral code, keeping professional role secondary to whom the individual is as a person
6.Courage: daring to take risks and try new approaches; challenging conventional modes of working and using values and convictions to govern one's actions
7. Forgiveness: having the ability to understand and experience the feelings of others, let go of perceived wrongdoings, and not carry a grudge into other situations
8. Stewardship: demonstrating the willingness to take responsibility for the larger institution sense of obligation to a common good that includes the self but that stretches beyond one's own self-interest
Authoritarian (or autocratic) leadership
involves making decisions independently with little or no input from others.
= is in direct contrast with empowering leadership
Empowering leadership
enables power sharing with employees by clarifying the significance of the work, providing autonomy, expressing confidence in the employee's capabilities, and removing hindrances to performance.
A normative theory
implies or prescribes a norm or standard.
Ethical leadership theory
prescribes that leaders should be role models of appropriate behavior-- such as openness, honesty, and trustworthiness-- who are motivated by altruism, meaning their concern for others.
Ethical climates
are the ethical values, norms, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors of employees in an organization.
___ study the personal qualities and characteristics of leaders to identify their association with leader emergence and effectiveness. (a) Implicit leadership approaches (b) Managerial approaches (c) Behavior approaches (d) Trait approaches
(d) Trait approaches
The two meta-categories of leader behaviors found in the behavioral approaches are ___.
(a) transformational and transactional leader behaviors
(b) achievement-oriented and participative leadership
(c) relations-oriented and task-oriented behaviors
(d) directive and authoritarian behavioral styles
(c) relations-oriented and task-oriented behaviors
The "born" argument in leadership implies that leaders should be ___. (a) developed (b) selected (c) trained (d) transformed
(b) selected
According to ___, whether leader behaviors will be effective depends on the situation. (a) trait approaches (b) behavior approaches (c) contingency theories (d) transactional theories
(c) contingency theories
The best leadership style to use when tasks are highly repetitive is ___.
(a) supportive
(b) directive
(c) charismatic
(d) entrepreneurial
(a) supportive
Charisma is most aptly described as a ___ process. (a) leader (b) relational (c) follower (d) situational
(b) relational
Research has shown that charisma is ___ for most chief executives. (a) a neutralizer (b) a substitute (c) beneficial (d) not beneficial
(d) not beneficial
To help avoid the dangers of charisma, leaders should reduce ___.
(a) transactions
(b) task-oriented behaviors
(c) power distance
(d) networks
(c) power distance
According to Burns's theory, ___ are not leaders. (a) bureaucrats (b) power wielders (c) managers (d) socialized charismatics
(b) power wielders
Bass modified Burns's theory to focus on ___ rather than moral interests. (a) organizational (b) societal (c) follower (d) collective
(a) organizational
Complexity leadership approaches offer an alternative to ___ organizing principles.
(a) systems (b) political (c) transformational (d) bureaucratic
(d) bureaucratic
The key contribution complexity offers to leadership is the understanding of ___. (a) emergence (b) administrative leadership (c) entrepreneurial leadership (d) empowerment
(a) emergence
Ethical leadership theory is a ___ theory of leadership. (a) transformational (b) transactional (c) normative (d) complexity
(c) normative
When leaders create moral awareness and concern, enhance moral reasoning, and encourage moral responsibility, they are creating more ___.
(a) transformational leadership
(b) ethical climates
(c) empowering climates
(d) authenticity
(b) ethical climates
___ are attuned to spiritual values and see their responsibility as being stewards for the good of the whole.
(a) Servant leaders
(b) Transformational leaders
(c) Authoritarian leaders
(d) Empowering leaders
(a) Servant leaders