Upgrade to remove ads
HIT 3 Test 4 Renal Disorders C 54
Terms in this set (51)
A nurse identifies a nursing diagnosis of risk for ineffective breathing pattern related to incisional pain and restricted positioning for a client who has had a nephrectomy. Which of the following would be most appropriate for the nurse to include in the client's plan of care?
Encourage use of incentive spirometer every 2 hours.
To address the issue of ineffective breathing pattern, encouraging the use of incentive spirometer would be most appropriate to help increase alveolar ventilation. Administering isotonic fluid therapy would be appropriate for issues involving fluid loss such as bleeding or hemorrhage. Keeping the drainage catheter below the level of insertion would be appropriate to reduce the risk of obstruction leading to acute pain. Monitoring the temperature every 4 hours would be appropriate to reduce the client's risk for infection.
The client with chronic renal failure complains of intense itching. Which assessment finding would indicate the need for further nursing education?
Brief, hot daily showers
Hot water removes more oils from the skin and can increase dryness and itching. Tepid water temperature is preferred in the management of pruritus. The use of moisturizing lotions and creams that do not contain perfumes can be helpful. Avoid scratching and keeping nails trimmed short is indicated in the management of pruritus.
A client is admitted with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. His blood pressure on admission is 74/30 mm Hg. The client is oliguric and his blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels are elevated. The physician will most likely write an order for which treatment?
Start I.V. fluids with a normal saline solution bolus followed by a maintenance dose.
The client is in prerenal failure caused by hypovolemia. I.V. fluids should be given with a bolus of normal saline solution followed by maintenance I.V. therapy. This treatment should rehydrate the client, causing his blood pressure to rise, his urine output to increase, and the BUN and creatinine levels to normalize. The client wouldn't be able to tolerate oral fluids because of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The client isn't fluid-overloaded so his urine output won't increase with furosemide, which would actually worsen the client's condition. The client doesn't require dialysis because the oliguria and elevated BUN and creatinine levels are caused by dehydration.
A client who suffered hypovolemic shock during a cardiac incident has developed acute renal failure. Which is the best nursing rationale for this complication?
Decrease in the blood flow through the kidneys
Acute renal failure can be caused by poor perfusion and/or decrease in circulating volume results from hypovolemic shock. Obstruction of urine flow from the kidneys through blood clot formation and structural damage can result in postrenal disorders but not indicated in this client.
The nurse weighs a patient daily and measures urinary output every hour. The nurse notices a weight gain of 1.5 kg in a 74-kg patient over 48 hours. The nurse is aware that this weight gain is equivalent to the retention of:
1,500 mL of fluid
A 1-kg weight gain is equal to 1,000 mL of retained fluid.
A client comes to the Emergency Department complaining of a sudden onset of sharp, severe flank pain. During the physical examination, the client indicates that the pain, which comes in waves, travels to the suprapubic region. He states, "I can even feel the pain at the tip of my penis." Which of the following would the nurse suspect?
Symptoms of a kidney or ureteral stone vary with size, location, and cause. Small stones may pass unnoticed; however, sudden, sharp, severe flank pain that travels to the suprapubic region and external genitalia is the classic symptom of urinary calculi. The pain is accompanied by renal or ureteral colic, painful spasms that attempt to move the stone. The pain comes in waves that radiate to the inguinal ring, the inner aspect of the thigh, and to the testicle or tip of the penis in men, or the urinary meatus or labia in women. Clients with acute glomerulonephritis may be asymptomatic or may exhibit fever, nausea, malaise, headache, edema (generalized or periorbital), pain, and mild to moderate hypertension. Clients with ureteral stricture may complain of flank pain and tenderness at the costovertebral angle and back or abdominal discomfort. A client with renal cell carcinoma rarely exhibits symptoms early on but may present with painless hematuria and persistent back pain in later stages.
A history of infection specifically caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci is associated with which of the following disorders?
Acute glomerulonephritis is also associated with varicella zoster virus, hepatitis B, and Epstein-Barr virus. Acute renal failure is associated with hypoperfusion to the kidney, parenchymal damage to the glomeruli or tubules, and obstruction at a point distal to the kidney. Chronic renal failure may be caused by systemic disease, hereditary lesions, medications, toxic agents, infections, and medications. Nephrotic syndrome is caused by disorders such as chronic glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple myeloma, and renal vein thrombosis.
Following a nephrectomy, which assessment finding is most important in determining nursing care for the client?
SpO2 at 90% with fine crackles in the lung bases
The Risk for Ineffective Breathing Pattern is often a challenge in caring for clients postnephrectomy due to location of incision. Nursing interventions should be directed to improve and maintain SpO2 levels at 90% or greater and keep lungs clear of adventitious sounds. Intake and output is monitored to maintain a urine output of greater than 30 mL/hour. Pain control is important and should allow for movement, deep breathing, and rest. Blood-tinged drainage from the JP tube is expected in the initial postoperative period.
An elderly client is being evaluated for suspected pyelonephritis and is ordered kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB) x-ray. The nurse understands the significance of this order is related to which rationale?
Detects calculi, cysts, or tumors
Urinary obstruction is the most common cause of pyelonephritis in the older adult. A KUB may reveal obstructions such as calculi, cysts, or tumors. KUB is not indicated for detection of impaired renal function or reveal increased risk for chronic form of the disorder. Urine cultures will reveal causative microorganisms present in the urine.
The nurse is caring for a patient with a right-arm arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for hemodialysis treatments. Which of the following nursing actions is contraindicated?
Obtaining a blood pressure reading from the right arm
The nurse assesses the vascular access for patency. The bruit, or "thrill," over the venous access site must be evaluated at least every shift. The nurse takes precautions to ensure that the extremity with the vascular access is not used for measuring blood pressure or for obtaining blood specimens; tight dressings, restraints, or jewelry over the vascular access must be avoided as well.
The nurse is reviewing the potassium level of a patient with kidney disease. The results of the test are 6.5 mEq/L, and the nurse observes peaked T waves on the ECG. What priority intervention does the nurse anticipate the physician will order to reduce the potassium level?
Administration of sodium polystyrene sulfonate [Kayexalate])
The elevated potassium levels may be reduced by administering cation-exchange resins (sodium polystyrene sulfonate [Kayexalate]) orally or by retention enema. Kayexalate works by exchanging sodium ions for potassium ions in the intestinal tract.
Which of the following is a term used to describe excessive nitrogenous waster in the blood, as seen in acute glomerulonephritis?
The primary presenting features of acute glomerulonephritis are hematuria, edema, azotemia (excessive nitrogenous wastes in the blood), and proteinuria (>3 to 5 g/day). Bacteremia is excessive bacteria in the blood.
The client with chronic renal failure is exhibiting signs of anemia. Which is the best nursing rationale for this symptom?
Diminished erythropoietin production
Erythropoietin is a hormone produced in the kidneys, and this production is inadequate in chronic renal failure, which results in anemia. Azotemia, impaired immune response, and electrolyte imbalance are associated with chronic renal failure but not indicated with anemia.
Which nursing assessment finding indicates that the client who has undergone renal transplant has not met expected outcomes?
Fever is an indicator of infection or transplant rejection
After teaching a group of students about how to perform peritoneal dialysis, which statement would indicate to the instructor that the students need additional teaching?
"It is appropriate to warm the dial sate in a microwave."
The dialysate should be warmed in a commercial warmer and never in a microwave oven. Strict aseptic technique is essential. The infusion clamp is opened during the infusion and clamped after the infusion. When the dwell time is done, the drain clamp is opened and the fluid is allowed to drain by gravity into the drainage bag.
Which of the following is the hallmark of the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?
Proteinuria (predominantly albumin) exceeding 3.5 g per day is the hallmark of the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome. Hypoalbuminemia, hypernatremia, and hyperkalemia may occur.
A nurse receives her client care assignment. Following the report, she should give priority assessment to the client:
who, following a kidney transplant, has returned from hemodialysis with a sodium level of 110 mEq/L and a potassium level of 2.0 mEq/L.
A sodium level of 110 mEq/L and a potassium level of 2.0 mEq/L in a client immediately following dialysis should be the priority assessment. Pinkish mucus discharge in the appliance bag is a normal finding for a client who's had an ileal conduit, as are a sodium level of 135 mEq/L and a potassium level of 3.7 mEq/L in a client who's had a kidney transplant. Although the nurse should further assess mild pain from urolithiasis, this is an expected finding and not a priority in relation to the client with abnormal sodium and potassium levels.
A client is admitted for treatment of chronic renal failure (CRF). The nurse knows that this disorder increases the client's risk of:
water and sodium retention secondary to a severe decrease in the glomerular filtration rate.
The client with CRF is at risk for fluid imbalance — dehydration if the kidneys fail to concentrate urine, or fluid retention if the kidneys fail to produce urine. Electrolyte imbalances associated with this disorder result from the kidneys' inability to excrete phosphorus; such imbalances may lead to hyperphosphatemia with reciprocal hypocalcemia. CRF may cause metabolic acidosis, not metabolic alkalosis, secondary to inability of the kidneys to excrete hydrogen ions.
A male client has doubts about performing peritoneal dialysis at home. He informs the nurse about his existing upper respiratory infection. Which of the following suggestions can the nurse offer to the client while performing an at-home peritoneal dialysis?
Wear a mask when performing exchanges.
The nurse should advise the client to wear a mask while performing exchanges. This prevents contamination of the dialysis catheter and tubing, and is usually advised to clients with upper respiratory infection. Auscultation of the lungs will not prevent contamination of the catheter or tubing. The client may also be advised to perform deep-breathing exercises to promote optimal lung expansion, but this will not prevent contamination. Clients with a fistula or graft in the arm should be advised against carrying heavy items.
A client has end-stage renal failure. Which of the following should the nurse include when teaching the client about nutrition to limit the effects of azotemia?
Increase carbohydrates and limit protein intake.
Calories are supplied by carbohydrates and fat to prevent wasting. Protein is restricted because the breakdown products of dietary and tissue protein (urea, uric acid, and organic acids) accumulate quickly in the blood.
The nurse expects which of the following assessment findings in the client in the diuretic phase of acute renal failure?
The diuretic phase of acute renal failure is characterized by increased urine output, hypotension, and dehydration.
A client with end-stage renal disease is scheduled to undergo a kidney transplant using a sibling donated kidney. The client asks if immunosuppressive drugs can be avoided. Which is the best response by the nurse?
"Even a perfect match does not guarantee organ rejection."
Even a perfect match does not guarantee that a transplanted organ will not be rejected. Immunosuppressive drugs are used in all organ transplants to decrease incidence of organ rejection. To provide the client with the information needed to provide informed consent, the treatment plan is reviewed and discussed prior to transplant.
A client with chronic renal failure (CRF) is admitted to the urology unit. Which diagnostic test results are consistent with CRF?
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 100 mg/dl and serum creatinine 6.5 mg/dl
The normal BUN level ranges 8 to 23 mg/dl; the normal serum creatinine level ranges from 0.7 to 1.5 mg/dl. A BUN level of 100 mg/dl and a serum creatinine of 6.5 mg/dl are abnormally elevated results, reflecting CRF and the kidneys' decreased ability to remove nonprotein nitrogen waste from the blood. CRF causes decreased pH and increased hydrogen ions — not vice versa. CRF also increases serum levels of potassium, magnesium, and phosphorous, and decreases serum levels of calcium. A uric acid analysis of 3.5 mg/dl falls within the normal range of 2.7 to 7.7 mg/dl; PSP excretion of 75% also falls within the normal range of 60% to 75%. (less
At the end of five peritoneal exchanges, a patient's fluid loss was 500 mL. How much is this loss equal to?
The most accurate indicator of fluid loss or gain in an acutely ill patient is weight. An accurate daily weight must be obtained and recorded. A 1-kg (2-lb) weight loss is equal to 1,000 mL.
The nurse is caring for a patient in the oliguric phase of AKI. What does the nurse know would be the daily urine output?
Less than 400 mL
The oliguria period is accompanied by an increase in the serum concentration of substances usually excreted by the kidneys (urea, creatinine, uric acid, organic acids, and the intracellular cations [potassium and magnesium]). The minimum amount of urine needed to rid the body of normal metabolic waste products is 400 mL. In this phase, uremic symptoms first appear and life-threatening conditions such as hyperkalemia develop.
The nurse is educating a patient who is required to restrict potassium intake. What foods would the nurse suggest the patient eliminate that are rich in potassium?
Foods and fluids containing potassium or phosphorus (e.g., bananas, citrus fruits and juices, coffee) are restricted.
A patient admitted with electrolyte imbalance has carpopedal spasm, ECG changes, and a positive Chvostek's sign. What deficit does the nurse suspect the patient has?
Calcium deficit is associated with abdominal and muscle cramps, stridor, carpopedal spasm, hyperactive reflexes, tetany, positive Chvostek's or Trousseau's sign, tingling of fingers and around mouth, and ECG changes.
When preparing a client for hemodialysis, which of the following would be most important for the nurse to do?
Check for thrill or bruit over the access site.
When preparing a client for hemodialysis, the nurse would need to check for a thrill or bruit over the vascular access site to ensure patency. Inspecting the catheter insertion site for infection, adding the prescribed drug to the dialysate, and warming the solution to body temperature would be necessary when preparing a client for peritoneal dialysis.
A client with decreased urine output refractory to fluid challenges is evaluated for renal failure. Which condition may cause the intrinsic (intrarenal) form of acute renal failure?
Nephrotoxic injury secondary to use of contrast media
Intrinsic renal failure results from damage to the kidney, such as from nephrotoxic injury caused by contrast media, antibiotics, corticosteroids, or bacterial toxins. Poor perfusion to the kidneys may result in prerenal failure. Damage to the epithelial cells of the renal tubules results from nephrotoxic injury, not damage to the adrenal cortex. Obstruction of the urinary collecting system may cause postrenal failure.
The nurse is caring for a patient with ESKD. Which of the following acid-base imbalances is associated with this disorder?
pH 7.20, PaCO2 36, HCO3 14-
Metabolic acidosis occurs in ESKD because the kidneys are unable to excrete increased loads of acid. Decreased acid secretion results from the inability of the kidney tubules to excrete ammonia (NH3-) and to reabsorb sodium bicarbonate (HCO3-). There is also decreased excretion of phosphates and other organic acids.
Acute dialysis is indicated in which situation?
Impending pulmonary edema
Acute dialysis is indicated when there is a high and increasing level of serum potassium, fluid overload, or impending pulmonary edema, or increasing acidosis.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the intrarenal category of acute renal failure?
The intrarenal category of acute renal failure encompasses an increased BUN, increased creatinine, a low specific gravity of urine, and increased urine sodium.
A client with chronic renal failure (CRF) has developed faulty red blood cell (RBC) production. The nurse should monitor this client for:
fatigue and weakness.
RBCs carry oxygen throughout the body. Decreased RBC production diminishes cellular oxygen, leading to fatigue and weakness. Nausea and vomiting may occur in CRF but don't result from faulty RBC production. Dyspnea and cyanosis are associated with fluid excess, not CRF. Thrush, which signals fungal infection, and circumoral pallor, which reflects decreased oxygenation, aren't signs of CRF.
The nurse is administering calcium acetate (PhosLo) to a patient with ESKD. When is the best time for the nurse to administer this medication?
Hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia are treated with medications that bind dietary phosphorus in the GI tract. Binders such as calcium carbonate (Os-Cal) or calcium acetate (PhosLo) are prescribed, but there is a risk of hypercalcemia. The nurse administers phosphate binders with food for them to be effective.
When assessing the impact of medications on the etiology of ARF, the nurse recognizes which of the following as the drug that is not nephrotoxic?
The three nephrotoxic drugs are aminoglycerides.
A nurse is reviewing the history of a client who is suspected of having glomerulonephritis. Which of the following would the nurse consider significant?
Recent history of streptococcal infection
Glomerulonephritis can occur as a result of infections from group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, bacterial endocarditis, or viral infections such as hepatitis B or C or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A history of hyperparathyroidism or osteoporosis would place the client at risk for developing renal calculi. A history of pyelonephritis would increase the client's risk for chronic pyelonephritis.
Which of the following is as integumentary manifestation of chronic renal failure?
Gray-brown skin color
Integumentary manifestations of chronic renal failure include a gray-bronze skin color and ecchymosis. Asterixis, tremors, and seizures are neurological manifestations of chronic renal failure.
The client with polycystic kidney disease asks the nurse, "Will my kidneys ever function normally again?" The best response by the nurse is:
"As the disease progresses, you will most likely require renal replacement therapy."
There is no cure for polycystic kidney disease. Medical management includes therapies to control blood pressure, urinary tract infections, and pain. Renal replacement therapy is indicated as the kidneys fail.
The nurse performs a physical examination on a client diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis to assist in determining which of the following?
Location of discomfort
The physical examination of a client with pyelonephritis helps the nurse determine the location of discomfort and signs of fluid retention, such as peripheral edema or shortness of breath. Observing and documenting the characteristics of the client's urine helps the nurse detect abnormalities in the urine. Laboratory blood tests reveal elevated calcium levels, whereas radiography and ultrasonography depict structural defects in the kidneys.
A dialysis client is prescribed erythropoietin (Epogen) to treat anemia associated with end-stage renal disease. The client weighs 147 lbs. The order is for Epogen 50 units/kg subcutaneously 3 times per week. The pharmacy supplied Epogen 3000 units/ml. How many milliliters will the nurse administer to the client? Round to the nearest tenth.
Which of the following nursing actions is most important in caring for the client following lithotripsy?
Strain the urine carefully for stone fragments.
The nurse should strain all urine following lithotripsy. Stone fragments are sent to the laboratory for chemical anaysis.
A nurse assesses a patient diagnosed in the prerenal stage of ARF. The nurse expects to find the following signs and symptoms. Select all that apply.
• Creatinine level of 1.3 mg/dL
• Urine sodium <20 mEq/L
• Urine specific gravity of 1.029
A 44-year-old client is in the hospital unit where you practice nursing. From the results of a series of diagnostic tests, she has been diagnosed with acute glomerulonephritis. What would you expect to find as a result of this condition?
The disruption of membrane permeability causes red blood cells (RBCs) and protein molecules to filter from the glomeruli into Bowman's capsule and eventually become lost in the urine. Pyuria is pus in the urine. Polyuria is an increased volume of urine voided. The disruption of membrane permeability causes red blood cells (RBCs) and protein molecules to filter from the glomeruli into Bowman's capsule and eventually become lost in the urine. This answer is incorrect.
The nurse is caring for a female patient who underwent a kidney transplant. The patient appears anxious and tearful and states "My body is going to reject the new kidney; I know I'm going to die." Which of the following is the best response by the nurse?
"I understand your concerns, let's talk about them."
The nurse must address the patient's concerns and encourage the patient to express her thoughts and concerns. The rejection of a transplanted kidney is of great concern to the patient, the family, and the health care team for many months. An important nursing function is the assessment of the patient's stress and coping. The nurse uses each visit with the patient to determine if the patient and family are coping effectively and the patient is adhering to the prescribed medication regimen. If indicated or requested, the nurse refers the patient for counseling. The other responses are nontherapeutic.
A client admitted with a gunshot wound to the abdomen is transferred to the intensive care unit after an exploratory laparotomy. I.V. fluid is being infused at 150 ml/hour. Which assessment finding suggests that the client is experiencing acute renal failure (ARF)?
Urine output of 250 ml/24 hours
ARF, characterized by abrupt loss of kidney function, commonly causes oliguria, which is characterized by a urine output of 250 ml/24 hours. A serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg/dl isn't diagnostic of ARF. A BUN level of 22 mg/dl or a temperature of 100.2° F (37.8° C) wouldn't result from this disorder.
Which of the following causes should the nurse suspect in a client is diagnosed with intrarenal failure?
Intrarenal causes of renal failure include prolonged renal ischemia, nephrotoxic agents, and infectious processes such as acute glomerulonephritis.
An investment banker, with chronic renal failure, informs the nurse of the choice for continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis. Which is the best response by the nurse?
"This type of dialysis will provide more independence."
Once a treatment choice has been selected by the client, the nurse should support the client in that decision. Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis will provide more independence for this client and supports the client's decision for treatment mode. The risk of peritonitis is greater, and symptoms should be discussed as part of the management of the disorder. Peritoneal dialysis is an effective method of dialysis for many clients.
A client is being treated for renal calculi and suspected hydronephrosis. Therefore, the nurse should maintain a record of the kidney's function. Which of the following measures can the nurse take to help achieve the objective?
Monitor the client's intake and output.
Monitoring and recording the client's intake and output provides information about the kidneys' function. It also helps identify any arising complications such as hydronephrosis. This would be care for a hemodialysis patient.
A nurse assesses a client shortly after living donor kidney transplant surgery. Which postoperative finding must the nurse report to the physician immediately?
Urine output of 20 ml/hour
Because kidney transplantation carries the risk of transplant rejection, infection, and other serious complications, the nurse should monitor the client's urinary function closely. A decrease from the normal urine output of 30 ml/hour is significant and warrants immediate physician notification. A serum potassium level of 4.9 mEq/L, a serum sodium level of 135 mEq/L, and a temperature of 99.2° F are normal assessment findings.
A client is diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease. Which of the following would the nurse most likely assess?
Hypertension is present in approximately 75% of clients with polycystic kidney disease at the time of diagnosis. Pain from retroperitoneal bleeding, lumbar discomfort, and abdominal pain also may be noted based on the size and effects of the cysts. Fever would suggest an infection. Periorbital edema is noted with acute glomerulonephritis.
A group of students are reviewing the phases of acute renal failure. The students demonstrate understanding of the material when they identify which of the following as occurring during the second phase?
During the second phase, the oliguric phase, oliguria occurs. Diuresis occurs during the third or diuretic phase. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) occurs during the first, or initiation, phase in which reduced blood flow to the nephrons leads to ATN. Restoration of glomerular function, if it occurs, occurs during the fourth, or recovery, phase.
This set is often in folders with...
MedSurg Chapter 54
Exam #3 (CH 54 - Mgmnt of Pts W/ Kidney Disorders)
MS Ch 54: Kidney Function
You might also like...
Chapter 54: Management of Patients With Kidney Dis…
Chapter 54: Management of Patients With Kidney Dis…
Other sets by this creator
HIT 3 Test 4 C 73 Disaster, Mass Casualty Nursing
HIT 3 Test 4 Emergency nursing
HIT 3 Test 4 Urinary Disorders C 55
HIT 3 test 4 Renal Assessment C 53
Other Quizlet sets
Chapter 9 Exam
Psychology week 8 Attention and Memory
STD's and other Infections
Chemistry Final 1st Semester Study Guide