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Geography: Ch. 9: Vocab Words
Terms in this set (26)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (pg. 367 / slide )
The total dollar value of all goods and services produced in a country over a specific period, usually a year.
GDP Per Capita (pg. 368 / slide )
The mathematical result of dividing a country's GDP by its national population. (The Latin per capita means "per head")
Human Development Index (HDI) (pg. 369 / slide )
A numerical value devised by the United Nations Development Programme that is used to measure how well basic needs are being met. It is a composite index, derived from three areas: life, expectancy, education, and income.
First World (pg. 375 / slide )
A term used to describe the group of wealthy, democratic, capitalist nations across the world.
Third World (pg. 375 / slide )
A term used to describe the world's poor nations as a group. During the Cold War era, these were not communist or socialist; in other words, they were not aligned with either the First or Second World.
Second World (pg. 375 / slide )
A term used during the Cold War era to describe the group of countries that were communist or socialist in their governmental philosophy, and had centrally planned rather than free-market economic systems.
Fourth World (pg. 376 / slide )
A term used to describe the world's poorest nations.
Brandt Line (pg. 376 / slide )
Division of the countries of the world into two regions: wealthy and poor. The Brandt Line is name after former West German Chancellor Willy Brandt, and was a concept commonly applied in the 1970s through the 1980s.
Primary Sector (pg. 376 / slide )
The set of economic activities that involve extracting natural resources from the Earth.
Secondary Sector (pg. 376 / slide )
The set of economic activities that involved processing the raw materials extracted by primary sector activities into usable goods. Commonly referred to as manufacturing.
Tertiary Sector (pg. 376 / slide )
The set of economic activities that refers to all the different types of work necessary to move goods and resources around and deliver them to people; in other words, service activities.
Quaternary Sector (pg. 377 / slide )
Intellectual and informational economic activities.
Industrial Revolution (pg. 380 / slide )
Beginning in England in the early 1700s, the Industrial Revolution saw the rapid transformation of the economy through the introduction of machines, new power sources, and novel chemical processes. These replaced human hands in the making of products, initially in the cotton textile industry.
Nationalization (pg. 381 / slide )
Government takeover of the transportation infrastructure and fuel sources from private foreign ownership, occurring in many previously colonized nations in the twentieth century.
Postdevelopment (pg. 389 / slide )
A theoretical approach that is critical of standard development practices, asserting that traditional developments efforts do not work because they are ultimately about controlling, not empowering, poor nations and people.
Imperialism (pg. 390 / slide )
A relationship whereby wealthy nations dominate poor ones by controlling their economic, political, and cultural systems.
Global South (pg. 390 / slide )
A term that has largely replaced "Third World" when referring to regions of Latin America, Africa, and most of Asia, in recognition that much of the world's dynamism, growth, and power resides in these places.
South-South Cooperation (pg. 390 / slide )
Trade, technological innovation, and other forms of exchange and assistance that occur between the larger and wealthier nations of the Global South, and poorer nations.
Digital Divide (pg. 391 / slide )
The rift between those who benefit from easy access to the Internet and, more importantly, the vast storehouse of knowledge available online; and those who do not have easy access.
Renewable Resources (pg. 396 / slide )
Those primary sector products that can be replenished naturally at a rate sufficient to balance their depletion by human use.
Global Climate Change (pg. 397 / slide )
Also known as global warming, global climate change involves alternations in climate caused by human activity and, most particularly, by the greatly increased amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by burning fossil fuels.
Greenhouse Effect (pg. 397 / slide )
The effect of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and other absorbing gases, which permits solar shortwave heat radiation to reach the Earth's surface but acts to block or trap long-wave outgoing radiation, causing a thermal imbalance and global heating.
Alternative Energy (pg. 400 / slide )
Alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, including hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal, nuclear, biofuel, and "clean" coal.
Carbon Cap and Trade (pg. 402 / slide )
Programs that limit (cap) carbon emissions, and lower the limit over time, as well as providing economic incentives for companies to find innovative ways to remain below their carbon cap.
Placelessness (pg. 404 / slide )
A disorienting sense of sameness in the cultural landscape.
Electronic Waste (pg. 408 / slide )
Used electronics, such as mobile phones, computers, office equipment, television sets, and refrigerators, which can no longer be used for their intended purpose and are discarded. Also known as e-waste.
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