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Organizations Exam #2
Terms in this set (94)
a psychological response to demands where there is something at stake and where coping with the demands taxes or exceeds a person's capacity or resources
the process individuals go through when perceiving and appraising stress
transactional theory of stress
how is stress different from stressors or strains?
stressors are the demands that cause stress and strains are the negative consequences that occur when stressed
what are some work challenge stressors?
time pressure, work complexity, work responsibility
what are some work hindrance stressors?
role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, daily hassles
what are some family challenge stressors?
family time demands, personal development, positive life events
what are some hindrance family stressors?
work-family conflict, financial uncertainty, negative life events
what are methods of coping with stressors?
behavioral and cognitive methods and problem-focused and emotion-focused
what are problem focused behavioral methods?
working harder, seeking assistance, and acquiring additional resources
what are emotion focused behavioral methods?
engaging in alternative activities, seeking support, and venting anger
what are problem focused cognitive methods?
strategizing, self-motivation, and changing priorities
what are emotion focused cognitive methods?
avoiding, distancing, and ignoring, looking for the positive in the negative, reappraising
people differ in their ability to cope with stressors as a function of:
social support - instrumental and emotional
type A behavior pattern
what are some consequences of stress?
physiological strains, psychological strains, and behavioral strains
what are physiological strains?
illness, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, headaches, back pain, stomachaches
what are some psychological strains?
depression, anxiety, irritability, forgetfulness, inability to think clearly, reduced confidence, burnout
what are some behavioral strains?
alcohol and drug use, teeth grinding, compulsive behaviors, overreacting
how are hindrance stressor related to job performance?
there is a weak negative relationship with job performance. higher levels of hindrance stressors tend to have lower levels of task performance. not much is known about the impact of hindrance stressors on citizenship behavior and counterproductive behavior
how are hindrance stressors related to organizational commitment
hindrance stressors have a strong negative relationship with organizational commitment. Higher levels of hindrance stressors tend to have lower levels of affective commitment and normative commitment. relationships with continuance commitment are weaker
how are challenge stressors related to job performance?
challenge stressors have a weak positive relationship with job performance. people who experience higher levels of challenge stressors tend to have higher levels of task performance. not much is known about the impact of challenge stressors on citizenship behavior and counterproductive behavior
how are challenge stressors related to organizational commitment?
challenge stressors have a moderate positive relationship with organizational commitment. people who experience higher levels of challenge stressors tend to have higher levels of affective commitment and normative commitment. relationships with continuance commitment are weaker
how can exercise help with stress management?
managing hindrance stressors, improving work-life balance, improving hardiness
what can organizations do to help with stress?
assessment, reducing stressors, providing resources, reducing strains
how does the type a behavior pattern influence the stress process?
they are more sensitive to demands and increase stress levels to work towards goal attainment
a set of energetic forces that originate within and outside an employee that initiates work-related effort and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence
what are some theories of motivation
expectancy theory, goal setting theory, equity theory, psychological empowerment
motivation is fostered when the employee believes three things 1. that effort will result in performance, 2. that performance will result in outcomes, 3. that those outcomes will be valuable
what is expectancy?
if you exert a lot of effort you will perform well
what can expectancy be hindered by?
lack of necessary resources, lack of supportive leadership, low self-efficacy
what is instrumentality?
if i perform well, will i receive outcomes?
what can instrumentality be hindered by?
poor methods for measuring performance, as instrumentality could actually be rewritten to be performance, evaluation, and outcomes, inadequate budget to provide outcomes, even when performance is high, use of policies that reward things besides performance, such as attendance and seniority, and time delays in doling out rewards
anticipated value of outcomes
what are the two types of valence
extrinsic and intrinsic
what are extrinsic outcomes?
pay, bonuses, promotions, benefits and perks, spot awards, praise, job security, support, free time
what are intrinsic outcomes?
enjoyment, interestingness, accomplishment, knowledge gain, skill development, personal expression, lack of boredom, lack of anxiety, lack of frustration
why does pay have such high valence?
the meaning of money: achievement, respect, and freedom
what is the key aspect of the expectancy theory?
multiplicative effects: motivation is zero if either expectancy, instrumentality, or valence is zero
what is the formula for the expectancy theory?
motivation= (E-->P) x the sum of [(P-->O) xV]
motivation is fostered when employees are given specific and difficult goals rather than no goals, easy boas, or "do you best" goals
goal setting theory
motivation is maximized when an employee's ratio of "outcomes" to "inputs" matches those of some "comparison other" thus motivation also depends on the outcomes received by other employees
what is the formula for the equity thoery?
your outcomes/your inputs = other's outcomes/ other's inputs
an intrinsic form of motivation derived fro the belief that one's work tasks are contributing to some larger purpose
what are the four beliefs that psychological empowerment is fostered by?
meaningfulness, self-determination, competence, and impact
how is motivation related to job performance?
has a stron positive effect on job performance. people who have a higher level of motivation have higher levels of task performance. these effects are strongest for self-efficacy's competence, followed by goal difficulty, the valance-instrumentality-expectency contribution, and equity. equity has a moderate positive effect on the former and a moderate negative effect on them
how is motivation related to organizational commitment
less is known about the effects of motivation organizational commitment. Equity has a moderate positive effect. people who experience higher levels of equity tend to feel higher levels of affective commitment and higher levels of normative commitment. Effects on continuance commitment are weaker
the willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectations about the authority's actions and intentions
what does having trust mean?
willing to be vulnerable
what does having risk mean?
actually becoming vulnerable
what are the three types of trust?
disposition based trust, cognition based trust, and affect based trust
trust propensity. a general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals and groups can be relied upon
disposition based trust
trustworthiness. the characteristics of a trustee that inspire trust such as ability benevolence and integrity
cognition based trust
trustworthiness can sometimes be difficult to judge, especially early in work relationships. what can you use to help?
what can serve as behavioral evidence of trustworthiness
what are some justice-relevant acts
distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, informational justice
equity v equality v need. are rewards allocated according to the proper norm?
distributive justice rules
voice, correct ability, consistency, bias suppression, representativeness, and accuracy
procedural justice rules
respect and propriety
interpersonal justice rules
justification and truthfulness
informational justice rules
the degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms
what are the three types of ethics?
unethical behavior, merely ethical behavior, and especially ethical behavior
what is the four component model?
individual and situational factors that go into moral awareness --> moral judgement, --> moral intent, --> ethical behavior
how is trust related to job performance?
has a moderate positive effect on performance. employees who are willing to be vulnerable to authorities tend to have higher levels of task performance, are more likely to engage in citizenship behavior, and are less likely to engage in counterproductive behavior
how is trust related to organizational commitment?
has a strong negative affect on commitment. employees who are willing to be vulnerable to authorities tend to have higher levels of affective commitment and higher levels of normative commitment. trust has not affect on continuance commitment
what are the components of corporate social responsibility?
legal component, ethical component, and social component
the willingness to be vulnerable to a trustee based on positive expectations about the trustees actions and intentions
reflects the perceived fairness of an authority's decision making
reflects the degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with general accepted moral norms
your personality traits include a general propensity to trust others
disposition based trust
its rooted in a rational assessment of the authorities trustworthiness
cognition based trust
it depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond any rational assessment
affect based trust
reflects the perceived fairness of decision making outcomes
reflects the perceived fairness of decision making processes a stronger driver of reactions to authorities
reflects the perceived fairness of treatment received by the employees from the authority
reflects the perceived fairness of communications provided to employees from authorities
the structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior
what did the twin studies explain about the nature v nurture issue of personality
identical twins reared apart in order to separate nature and nurture effects. Between 35% and 49% of the variation in personality is due to genetics
what are the big five personality dimensions
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience
dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, persevering
kind, cooperative, sympathetic, hepful, courteous, warm
nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, and unstable
talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, dominant
curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, sophisticated
openness to experience
reflects the distinction between believing that events are driven by luck, chance, or fate, versus people's own behaviors. strongly correlated with neuroticism
locus of control
what are the myers-briggs type indicators
evaluates individuals on the basis of four types of preferences. extraversion v introversion, sensing v intuition, thinking v feeling, judging v perceiving
why are an increasing number of organizations attempting to measure 'honesty" or "integrity" for use in hiring?
they tap three of the big five- high conscientiousness, low neurotics, high agreeableness
why is it surprising that integrity tests work?
we would expect that people would lie about or at least exaggerate their integrity
shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture
what should cultural values provide?
societies with their own distinctive personalities
internal locus of control
people believe their own behavior dictates events
external locus of control
people believe that the events that occur around them are driven by luck and fate
what are hofstede's dimensions for cultural value
individualism-collectivism, power distance (low/high), uncertainty avoidance (low/high), masculinity-femininity, short-term v long-term oriented
power distance, uncertainty avoidance, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, gender egalitarianism, assertiveness, future orientation, performance orientation, and humane orientation
what effect does conscientiousness have on job performance?
a moderate positive effect on performance. conscientious employees have higher levels of task performance. they are also more likely to engage in citizenship behavior and less likely to engage in counterproductive behavior
what effect does conscientiousness have on organizational commitment
has a moderate positive effect on commitment. conscientious employees have higher levels of affective commitment and higher levels of normative commitment. conscientiousness has no effect on continuance commitment
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