2. Compare and contrast Catholic Italy and its patronage of artists versus Protestant Holland and its patronage of artists during the Baroque period.
A. The Catholic church was still the primary patron of artists in Italy, and much of the magnificent art from that period is seen in St. Peter's. In Holland, the growing middle class bought art, and artists sold art on the open market, so still lifes and landscape paintings were popular.
B. In Catholic Italy patrons ranged widely, from institutions, such as the church and governments, to individuals, such as cardinals and many "common" people. On the other hand, many subjects for art were banned or thought unworthy, such as family portraits and landscapes without people in them. In Protestant Holland, the Protestant church was the primary patron for art and that art was intended for God's eyes, not sinful man's. The art was consequently darker and very symmetrical-perfection was a major goal for these artists.
C. Artists remained under the thumb of their patrons as they always had in Catholic Italy, and the primary patrons remained the Medicis, who continued to demand overtly romanticized and religious art, preferably with a portrait of a family member in the background. In Protestant Holland, artists were much freer to paint whatever they wanted to because there was no system of patronage. On the other hand, artists were much less respected in Holland, and very few of them were able to earn a living. .
D. Patrons in Catholic Italy looked on art as a chance for immortality, so there were many more portraits done of solid middle-class citizens. In Protestant Holland, society frowned on personal portraits being made, and so there were still lifes and landscapes made for various institutions that commissioned them.