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Terms in this set (66)
Type of terrain
Landlocked and rugged, 3/4 of the country is mountains and travel is difficult
Type of climate
Wide varation throughout country
Name the 4 regions
How has the terrain contributed to politics
Geographic divisions have always contributed to how the country is ruled
Different regions ruled by tribes and clans
Name the ethnic groups of Afghanistan
Pashtun (majority), Tajik, Uzbek and Hazara (shia)
Main religion and sects
Isalm - Sunni and Shia
when did the main religion arrive ?
Importance of religion
Created common bond among different ethnic and tribal groups
Religion interwoven with daily life
What is Afghan identity tied to
Afghan identity is tied to ethnicity, tribe, and family
Strong sense of nationalism
Percent population of each ethnic group
Others (Turkmen, Aimaq, Baluch, Nuristani, Kizilbash): 13%
Where did the Hazara descent from
Mongol descent - possible Gengis Khan
Where do the Hazara live
Occupy mountainous areas of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran
Are the Hazara sunni or shia
How/ why are the Hazara discriminated against
Discriminated on the basis of physical features and religion, economic, and political status, language
What struggles do they face as a poeple
Social, economic, and political inequalities persist for the Hazara
What three major empires was Afghanistan caught between
Safavid Empire in Iran
Mughal Empire in India
Uzbeks in the north
Who was the first king of Afghanistan and when did he come into power
1747: Ahmad Shah Durrani became first king of Afghanistan
His successors ruled until 1978
Why did the Afghan people not like outsiders
One hundred years of foreign interventions fostered a sense of unity and resistance to outsiders
What two countries did Afghanistan get caught in between (politically not geographically)
Britain and Russia
When was Afghanistan invaded by the British and why
Britain invaded Afghanistan in 1839 to prevent Russian aggression
What happened in response to the British invading Afghanistan
Afghan resistance pushed the British out
Another military campaign by the British again ended in failure
What did Britain do to attempt to rule from afar
Britain made Afghanistan a protectorate which it ruled from India
When was the British puppet king installed and what was his name
Installed puppet king Abdur Rahman Khan in 1879
Further bred hostility of Afghanistan to outsiders
Why did the british decide to use a puppet instead of brute force
British decided it was easier to but cooperation of Afghans than to fight them
Helped king stay in power with money and weapons
However, what was the british installed king doing in Afghanistan
At the same time, Rahman was stoking religious fervour against the British
When did Afghanistan proclaim independence and under what ruler?
In 1920 - Afghanistan claimed independence from Great Britain under King Amanullah Khan
what did King Amanullah Khan do to Modernize Afghanistan?
Emphasized educational opportunities for girls
Reformed justice system
Attempted to modernize economy
Why were the people resistant to his changes
Challenged traditional values, especially those relating to women
Modernization efforts threatened power of rural and religious and tribal leaders
Programs cost money which led to new taxes
Who was the next king after King Amanullah Khan and from when did he rule
What were some of Zahir Shah's main actions
Repealed Amanullah's reforms
What did Afghanistan in the pre WWII era and why
Afghanistan mistrust of Great Britain and Russia (USSR) leads Afghanistan to seek assistance from Germany and Japan during pre-war era
What 2 superpowers emerged from WWII? Who declined as a world power?
Soviet Union and US emerge from WW2 as superpower - Britain declines as world power
Who became king in 1973 and how?
In 1973, king was ousted in a coup by his cousin and prime minister, Mohammed Daud
What were some of his first (and questionable) actions? What were the results of these actions?
Daud purged government and opposition - arresting and torturing those who spoke against him
Allied himself with Iran - at the time, they were allies of the US
Freaked out the soviets who thought they would lose influence
what happened in 1978? what did Daud do as a result of these actions?
anti-government protests by communist students
Daud ordered them arrested
What happened 4 days after the 1978 protests and why did this happen ?
Daud was assassinated by Soviet supporters within Afghan army who wanted to create a Soviet-style government
Who was named the new puppet president in 1978?
what happened that ended Mohammad Najibullah's reign
The Soviet Union collapsed 2 years after its withdrawal from Afghanistan
This also ended Soviet financial support of Najibullah's regime
Name some causes for the Soviet Invasion
Out of concern that the communist government in Afghanistan would be overthrown, Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December, 1979 - believed they would only be there for a few months to stabilize the situation
Name some consequences for the Soviet Invasion
More than 1 million Afghans were killed
5-7 million fled
Why did the US intervene in Afghanistan
As part of the Cold War policy, the US intervened to contain the expansion of Soviet power and influence
US was particularly concerned with proximity of Afghanistan to Middle East, particularly since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 ousted pro-US regime
What was stated in the Carter Doctrine?
The US would not allow any other outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf
What was stated in the Reagan Doctrine?
The US would provide overt and covert aid to anti-communist guerrillas and resistance movement
US bankrolled mujahideen, reaching $630 million a year - called Operation Cyclone
Relied heavily on Pakistan and the ISI (Inter-Service Intelligence - Pakistan's CIA) to be the intermediary between the US and the mujahideen
What did the US (and Saudi Arabia) finance for the Mujahideen
Money financed a mix of weapons, tactics, logistics, and training to enhance mujahideen's ability to fight the Soviets
How much did Saudi Arabia spend Financing the Mujahideen in relation to the US?
Agreed to match dollar for dollar what the CIA was spending
Who were the Mujahideen? What does the name mean?
Afghans became united by a common purpose: to resist the soviets - saw it as a valid reason for jihad - to struggle against the enemies of Islam
Those who struggle were mujahideen
How did the Mujahideen fight agains the Soviets ?
Mujahideen fought an effective guerilla war - without any centralized leadership - based on ambush and knowledge of the rough terrain
How were the Mujahideen organized?
Groups of mujahideen were organized along ethnic and geographic lines
From different regions of the country with different political beliefs
Did not coordinate efforts and often fought each other
What happened when the soviet union pulled out
rivalries between the heavily armed mujahideen groups quickly turned into a civil war and old ethnic rivalries took over
What does Talib and Taliban mean?
Talib = student
Taliban = students
Who were the Taliban?
Taliban were largely former mujahedeen who studied at religious schools in Afghanistan and Pakistan
What did the Taliban believe in?
Believed Afghanistan's problems could be solved by returning to 'proper religion' - very strict interpretation of sharia
How did the Taliban generate public support?
by protecting population from abuse and crimes committed by warlords
Many young Afghans, who had seen decades of war and were deeply impoverished, flocked to the Taliban
Who was the leader of the Taliban
What did he do to take on almost mythical status?
He wore what is believed to be the cloak of the Prophet Muhammad in public to rally the Taliban
Who formed the Northern Alliance
The one promising resistance to the Taliban, mujahedeen hero, Ahmad Shah Massoud, finally convinced the CIA to support him in 2001
When was Ahmad Shah Massoud killed (in relation to other major events) and what was the significance of his death.
He was killed 2 days before 9/11 in a suicide bombing, likely ordered by al Qaeda.
The only possibility of beating the taliban but he was killed right before 9/11
What was life like under the Taliban?
Cultural icons not Sunni Islamic were destroyed eg: Bamiyan Buddhas
Shi'as seen as infidels and persecuted
7 Year Reign of Terror: name things women could not do (there is a lot)
Complete ban on women working
Women could not leave the home without a male relative
Women could not deal with male shopkeepers
Women could not go to school
All women must wear burqa in public
Public beatings of women for showing too much skin was common
Public stoning of women accused of adultery
Women could not laugh in public
Women could not wear nail polish or high heals
Women could not play sports or ride a bicycle
Women could not gather in public
Women could not wash clothes in the river
Women could not stand on balconies
What restrictions were applied to everyone during the 7 year reign of terror?
Banned listening to music
Banned movie and TV
Ordered all people with un-Islamic names to change to Islamic ones
Forced haircuts on men
Ordered that men wear 'Islamic clothing' and a cap
Ordered that men shot shave or trim beards, and that it must be long enough to protrude from a fist clasped under the chin
Banned kite flying
Anyone who converts from Islam will be executed
Banned the internet
What were some common punishments for violating all those rules?
Public stoning to death for adultery
Amputation of limbs for various crimes, including stealing, drinking alcohol or taking drugs
Homosexuals were killed, often in brutal ways, such as rolling over them with tanks
Flogging up to 100 lashes for unmarried people found guilty of 'adultery'
Where did a lot of these punishments take place and why?
Many punishments were carried out in Kabul's Ghazi stadium, with public viewing
How did the US use Pakistan to interact withe the Mujahideen
US Relied heavily on Pakistan and the ISI (Inter-Service Intelligence - Pakistan's CIA) to be the intermediary between the US and the mujahideen
What did Pakistan do to help the Afghan's fight against the soviets?
Pakistan encouraged volunteers from other Arab states to join the Afghan resistance in its struggles against the Soviets
Pakistan in particular supported groups that it thought would support its own political interests in Afghanistan
Did Pakistan support the Taliban? why or why not?
Taliban was supported by ISI who were hoping for a pro-Pakistan Islamic government to be instituted in Afghanistan
What role did Iran play during the Soviet invasion ?
Iran intervened at the same time as the US
Wanted to export the success of their Islamic Revolution of 1979
Supported and trained shi'a mujahideen
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