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Psych Set 3
Terms in this set (140)
Test items fall on a normal distribution .
Assessment is pretested by an experimental group similar to ones taking the test.
Group of people that help standardize the test (pilot group).
People who make standardized exams
Reliability vs. Validity
Reliability = Repeated consistency of a test score. Validity = Test measures what it's actually supposed to measure.
Randomly dividing the test into two different sections and then correlation people's performance on the two halves.
Getting the same score each time you take the test.
Equivalent Form Reliability
The correlation between performance on different forms of the test.
Measures whether the test looks like what it's supposed to test ( first glance assessment)
Measures how well the test reflects the entire range of material it's supposed to be testing. Measured by Item Analysis.
The process of examining each question on a test to see how it is related to the objectives it's testing.
the measure of a test against already established and reliable measures
Measure ability or potential.
Measure what one has previously learned .
While there is no definite meaning, it can be vaguely defined as the mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Fluid v. Crystallized Intelligence
Fluid = ability to solve abstract problems.
Crystallized= ability to use knowledge accumulated over time. (Raymond Cattel)
Multiple Intelligences Theory
Howard Gardener's theory of intelligence which, unlike other researchers at the time, proposed multiple (8) human behaviors as signs of intelligence. Linguistic, Logical, Spatial, Kinesthetic, Naturalist, Intrapersonal (ability to understand one's self), Interpersonal (ability to get alsong with others), and Musical.
General Intelligence (g factor)
Spearman's theory of an innate ability as the main factor underlying all intelligent mental activity.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Robert Sternberg's theory of intelligence. P-A-C
Practical Intelligence (street smarts)
Analytical Intelligence (IQ)
Creative Intelligence (abstract)
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
Daniel Goleman's theory of intelligence stressing the importance of being able to control, understand, and regulate one's emotions.
Remarkable talent (such as the ability to determine the day of the week for any given date) even though they are slow in other domains.
Stanford-Binet IQ Test
Created by Lewis Terman, it altered the Binet and Simon test by standardizing its admission and age level norms. Introduces concept of IQ. Inaccurate for adults at b/c of age.
IQ= (Mental Age)/(Chronological Age) x 100
Didn't like Stanford-Binet's emphasis on mental age. A more procedural test with a variety of proponents - Verbal, Performance, Overall Score. 3 different tests: WAIS (adults), WISC(children), WPPSI (preschool).
Measure of how much of a trait's variation is explained by genetic factors. Range of 0-1. Measures a group, not individual.
performance on intelligence tests has been increasing steadily throughout the century.
pioneer of human intelligence studying
Intelligence can be measured by one factor - G-factor.
Proposed the multiple intelligence theory.
Proposed the Triarchic theory of intelligence.
Wanted to design test that identified children struggling in school. Came up with the concept of mental age and created the first ever intelligence.
Created the Stanford-Binet IQ test. Eugenics guy. "Terman Termites."
Approached intelligence testing in a more procedural way. Created Wechsler Tests.
Significantly furthered the idea of Emotional Intelligence
<70 = Mental Retardation
100 = normal
85-115 = Average
>130 = Gifted
A term used to describe psychological disorders. NOT a medical term, but a legal term...those legally insane cannot be held fully responsible for crimes committed
To be considered "psychologically abnormal" one must be maladaptive/ disturbing, unusual, and irrational.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Book that contains everything currently considered a psychological disorder symptom and is used by psychologists to diagnose patients. Most current "dictionary" of psychology.
Mental disorders characterized by anxiety.
An intense or unwarranted fear of a situation or object.
Fear of open, public spaces.
Social Anxiety Disorder
Fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized in social situations.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A psychological problem where a person constantly experiences low level anxiety.
Characterized by acute episodes of intense anxiety (panic attacks) with no obvious connection with events in the person's present experience.
Notion that we carry a biological innate tendency (through natural selection of course) to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a threat to ancestors.
Somatic Symptoms Disorder
Situation in which a person experiences a a physical problem in the absence of a psychical cause.
Physical symptoms resulting in the loss of function not due to physical cause.
Hypochondriasis (Illness Anxiety Disorder)
Disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensation as symptoms of a specific illness.
Make up physical disorder for the purpose of medical attention.
Category that includes Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Identity Disorder. (Detachment)
loss of memory resulting from repression of psychological, emotional trauma or damage
Dissociative Identity Disorder
has multiple personalities rather than one integrated personality
Like dissociative amnesia but complete loss of identity.
Appears significant when one thinks that he/she is observing their body from the outside.
Mood Disorders (Affective Disorders)
a class of disorders where one experiences extreme or inappropriate emotions
Major Depressive Disorder
A form of depression that doesn't alternate with mania. Symptoms include depression for more than 2 weeks, loss of appetite, fatigue, change in sleeping patterns, last ok interest, and feelings of worthlessness. Also known as "the common cold" of of all psychological disorders. low levels of seretonin.
Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)
(Dysthymia) Milder form of depression in comparison to MDD.
Seasonal Affect Disorder
Only experiencing depression during certain times of the year. Usually in winter when there is a lack of sunlight.
Mental abnormality involving swings of mood from mania to depression. More receptors of Acetylcholine.
Martin Seligman. The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Most severe and debilitating psychological disorder characterized by disordered, distorted thinking through delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized language (world salad). organized into positive and negative symptoms. Positive = excess in behavior negative = no emotional response.
Suggests that high levels of dopamine is the cause of schizophrenia.
A side effect of overuse of schizophrenia prevention drugs that cause muscle tremors and stiffness.
Cause of schizophrenia -- When a person is given contradictory messages. For example, Sally gets yelled at by per parents for dressing provocatively. Yet at the same time, they only buy her exposing clothes.
Says that genetics can make someone prone to schizophrenia, but the disease needs to be 'turned on' by enviromental factors
Maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect a person's ability to function.
Antisocial Personality Disorders
Disorder where people look at the world more cynically, caring only for themselves. (Criminals usually have this).
Motor problem where a schizophrenic patient may remain motionless (in odd postures) for hours at a time.
Dependent Personality Disorder
people who rely on others attention and cannot function properly without it
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Person constantly feels as though someone is out to get them.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
person sees themselves as the center of attention.
Boderline Personality Disorder
person feels empty, suicidal, and unstable.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
people who are over dramatic
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
When unwanted obsessions cause someone the need to engage in a particular action.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Characterized by having haunting memories, social withdrawal, anxiety, and insomnia after a traumatic experience.
Paraphilia (or Psychosexual Disorder)
being sexually attracted to weird things
Substance Use Disorder
when the regular use of alcohol/drugs negatively affects one's life.
An eating disorder where a person maintains a starvation diet despite already being significantly underweight.
Person experiences short attention span, distractibility, and difficulty in remaining inactive.
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
a major cognitive therapist that says depressions results from peoples persistent overly negative feelings against themselves.
A cognitive behavior psychologist who developed the idea of 'learned helplessness' by shocking dogs.
Conducted a study that raised questions on the legitimacy of labels of psychological disorders by purposely admitting himself into mental hospitals by claiming to "hear voices."
early form of psychological treatment where holes would be punched in the skull to allow evil spirits to escape.
An unsuccessful movement to release people from mental institutions as an effort to save money and provide a more nurturing environment for patients.
Treating psychological problems before they become severe. 3 kinds - Primary (preventing a disease before it occurs, risk reduction), Secondary (reducing or curing an illness after it occurs to prevent disease progression, chemo for cancer), Tertiary (trying to make the best of a disease with little chance of resolving it, treatment of arthiritis).
Primary prevention attempts to reduce mental health issues caused by societal problems (unemployment/homelessness).
Secondary Prevention involves working with people in areas at risk of developing problems (area w/ trauma from terrorist attack).
Tertiary Prevention aims to keep people's mental health from becoming severe (earthquake survivors already suffering anxiety disorders).
Involves confiding emotionally charged interactions between trained therapist and patient. (Not the same as psychoanalysis)
Pioneered by Freud, Uses Free Association, Dream Analysis (Manifest/Latent Content), Resistance, and Transference to identify the unconscious mental problems resulting in disorder.
Psychotherapies in which the therapist helps the client understand (gain sight) into their problems.
Pioneered by Carl Rogers, Uses Unconditional Positive Regard and Active/Reflective listening to help the client uncover and resolve the issues that are preventing the him/her from reaching their full potential.
Client Centered Therapy
(Person-Centered Therapy) Founded by Carl Rodgers, this therapy uses unconditional positive regard to encourage healthy development. Conversation is directed by client and the therapists speak very little.
Founded by Fritz Perls, practitioners emphasize the importance of integrating all parts of the body both physical and mental. Also encourage 'living in the present'.
(often deal with extremely depressed people) sole purpose is to try and convince people that their lives have purpose and help clients develop that purpose.
Therapies based on the principles of learning - classical conditioning, operant conditioning, modeling.
conditioning of a new favorable response to replace an old unpleasant response
Removal of anxiety through gradual progression through the anxiety hierarchy. Keep exposing the patient to what they're afraid of.
a chart progressively more unpleasant stimuli which dictate the process of systematic desnsitization
Flooding (Exposure Therapy)
a direct exposure to the feared stimuli in a safe environment
Designed to make a tempting stimuli less provocative by pairing it with an unpleasant stimuli.
Token or other forms of reinforcement, which can be reimbursed for prizes, are given after desirable behaviors
overcoming a fear through observational learning
developed by Aaron Beck, says that disorders (namely depression and similar disorders) stem from negative and irrational behavior. More specifically, failures result from negative tendencies in Beck's Cognitive Triad. Therapists try to make patient more positive and rational.
The triad involves negative thoughts about:
The self (i.e., I am worthless)
The world/environment (i.e., the world is unfair), and
The future (i.e., the future is hopeless).
Part of Cognitive Therapy
Newer form of therapy that integrates cognitive therapy with biological therapy.
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy
Albert Ellis claims that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders. Lower your expectations.
Any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client at a time. Often done in humanistic perspective.
Another term for Biomedical Therapy
believe in drugs, surgery, and electrostimulation. They think mental disorders are rooted in biology.
A type of somatic therapy that involves the use of drugs. Also is a field of psychology.
Drugs that block the receptor sites for dopamine. used to treat schizophrania. Ex. thorazine
Side effect of Antipsychotic drugs that cause a loss of motor control.
Medicines that affect depression usually by their effect on serotonin and norepinephrine pathways. Block reuptake process.
Drugs that diminish the feelings of anxiety by depressing activity in the Central Nervous System. Examples: Xanax, Valium
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Used to counter severe depression. People take electric currents to the head which causes seizures.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
More efficient form of the ECT which magnetically stimulates specific areas of the brain and doesn't produce seizures.
Surgical intervention into the brain to remove or destroy affected parts. Ex. Prefrontal Lobotomy. Egas Moniz.
Medical doctors. Only ones that are allowed to prescribe meds.
Psychologists that have a PHD and they asses and treat psychological disorders.
Psychologists have a graduate degree and help resolve more mild psychological problems (ex school psychologists)
Psychologists that use Freudian methods.
founded Gestalt Therapy
HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE! founded person( or client)-centered therapy, emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
Mary Cover Jones
Developed counterconditioning (first behavioral therapy)
Developed systematic desensitization
The main Cognitive-Behavioral Therapist. He also developed Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy.
Made the controversial claim that 2/3 of of all people with nonpsychotic problems recover within two years with or without therapy. Disproven.
a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (Anti-Depressant) used to treat depression. Main drug for depression.
Type of antianxiety drug. It doesn't mix well with alcohol. Depresses Central Nervous System. miltown
A combination of multiple perspectives' opinions on therapy
type of anti-anxiety drug. Increases GABA (body's main neural inhibitor) levels. Know 2 types: Valium and Xanax
Popular antianxiety benzodiazepine
popular barbiturate (type of antianxiety med)
Mood stabilizer used to treat bipolar disorder
Used to treat ADHD and Narcolepsy. Ex. caffeine and Ritalin
used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy, stimulant
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