52 terms

Chapter 15 -Special Senses

Special Senses
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Terms in this set (...)

astigmatism
(ophthalmology) impaired eyesight resulting usually from irregular conformation of the cornea
auditory
of or relating to the process of hearing
auricle
the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
caruncle
A small fleshy growth
cataract
opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
chorid
middle layer of the eyeball that contains a dark pigment to prevent the scattering of incoming light rays.
ciliary body
a structure directly behind the iris of the eye. It secretes the aqueous humor and contains the ciliary muscle that changes the shape, and thus the refractive power, of the lens by tightening and relaxing the rension on the lens zonule.SYN: ciliary apparatus
cochlea
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
cones
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
conjuctiva
clear mucous membrane consisting of cells and underlying basement membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. Protects eyes from foreign bodies.
cornea
transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye
deafness
partial or complete loss of hearing
diplopia
visual impairment in which an object is seen as two objects, the perception of two images of a single object; also known as double vision
external auditory canal
either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
fovea centralis
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
gustatory
relating to the sense of taste
hyperopia
abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects, farsightedness
iris
muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil
labyrith
The inner ear, the bony vestibular Labyrinths, which contain the receptors for hearing and equilibrium.
lacrimal gland
gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears
maculal lutea
An oval light pink area in the center of the retina containing the fovea, the place of highest visual acuity.
Meibomian glands
oil glands located along the rim of the eyelids
myopia
(ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability, nearsightedness
olfactory
pertaining to the sense of smell
optic
the organ of sight
organs of Corti
Structures on the cochlea projecting outward, has cilia.
palpebrae
singular: palpebra; , two movable flaps of skin which cover and uncover each eyeball
papillae
small rough elevations on tongue and roof of mouth; contain taste buds
pupil
contractile aperture in the iris of the eye
receptor
an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
retina
the light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball
rhodopsin
A visual pigment consisting of retinal and opsin. When rhodopsin absorbs light, the retinal changes shape and dissociates from the opsin, after which it is converted back to its original form.
rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
saccule
The smaller of two sacs within the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule in the inner ear
scala typani
The duct filled with perilynph that is below the oragan of Corti. It extends from the round window to the tip of the cochlea.
scala vestibuli
The duct filled with perilymph that is above the organ of Corti. It extends from the oval window to the tip of the cochlea where it communicates with the scala tympani through and aperture the helicotrema.
sclera
The outer layer of the eyeball made of fibrous connective ftissue. At the front of the eye, it is visisble as the white of the eye and ends at the cornea, which is transparent.
semicurcular canals
function for dynamic equilibrium(help you keep your balance when moving).
strabismus
abnormal condition of squint or crossed eyes caused by the visual axes not meeting at the same point
transaduction
Biochemical conversion that is part of a processs,such as docking of a hormone to a recptor, stimulating cellular production of specific enzymes or other proteins.
tympanic membrane
the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
utricle
the larger of two sacs within the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule in the inner ear
vitreous body
the clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the posterior chamber of the eyeball
ossicles
The three small bones found in the middle ear (the malleus, the incus, and the stapes) that help to amplify the vibrations from sound waves. The malleus is atached to the tympanic membrane and the stapes is attached to the oval window of the cochlea.
cochlea
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
gust
taste
olifact
smell
scler
hard
vitre
glassy
aqu(a)
water (aqua)

(gen.) aqueduct, aquamarine
aud(i)
hearing, listening, sound (audible)
cent
center: Fovea centralis- lalrgest central location of cone cells on the retinal surface.