16 terms

area model

A diagram in which fractions of the area of the diagram correspond to probabilities in a situation.

binomial probability

The probability of getting one of two possible outcomes over many trials. For example, the probability of getting a heads or tails when tossing a coin or the probability of getting a 5 or not 5 when rolling a number cube.

compound event

An event that consists of two or more simple events. For example, tossing a coin is a simple event. Tossing two coins, and examining combinations of outcomes, is a ______________.

equally likely

Two or more events that have the same probability of occurring. For example, when you toss a fair coin, heads and tails are ______________; each has a 50% chance of happening.

expected value

Intuitively, the average payoff over the long run.

experimental probability

A probability that is determined through experimentation. For example, you could find the ______________ of getting a head when you toss a coin by tossing a coin many times and keeping track of the outcomes. The ______________ would be the ratio of the number of heads to the total number of tosses, or trials.

fair game

A game in which each player is equally likely to win.

favorable outcome

An outcome that gives a desired result. A ______________ is sometimes called a success. For example, when you toss two coins to find the probability of the coins matching, HH and TT are ______________.

outcome

A possible result. For example, when a number cube is rolled, the possible ______________ are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the likelihood that an outcome will occur. For example, when a fair number cube is rolled, a 2 can be expected 1/6 of the time, so the ______________ of rolling a 2 is 1/6 . The ______________ of a certain outcome is 1, while the ______________ of an impossible outcome is 0.

relative frequency

The ratio of the number of desired results to the total number of trials.

sample space

The set of all possible outcomes in a probability situation. When you toss two coins, the ______________ consists of four outcomes: HH, HT, TH, and TT.

simulation

An experiment using objects that represent the relevant characteristics of a real-world situation.

theoretical probability

A probability obtained by analyzing a situation. If all the outcomes are equally likely, you can find a theoretical probability of an event by listing all the possible outcomes and then finding the ratio of the number of outcomes producing the desired event to the total number of outcomes.

tree diagram

A diagram used to determine the number of possible outcomes in a probability situation. The number of final branches is equal to the number of possible outcomes.

trial

One round of an experiment. For example, if you are interested in the behavior of a coin, you might experiment by tossing a coin 50 times and recording the results. Each toss is a ______________, so this experiment consists of 50 ______________.