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Theory of reasoned Action and Theory of Planned behavior
Terms in this set (25)
Theories of Reasoned action and planned behavior
Looks at the relationship between individuals attitudes and behavior.
Focused on Rational, cognitive decision making processes.
Intention is necessary for behavior change to occur.
Theory of reasoned action
-Designed to help explain the volitional behavior (behavior that is under the control of the person)
-The TRA starts from the idea that the person's intention is the primary determinant of behavior, viewed as a function of two determinates. (persons attitude towards doing something and the perception of social pressure to preform.)
History of TRA and TPB
-Originated in the field of social psychology.
-The concept of "attitude" as a trigger and predictor of human behavior.
Value Expectancy Theory
-Behavior is a function of the expectancies one has and the value of the goal toward which one is working.
-It predicts that, when more than one behavior is possible, the behavior chosen will be the one with the largest combination of expected success and value.
-Expectancy-value theories hold that people are goal-oriented beings.
-BUT: there are other factors that influence the process. (social and psychological origins of need.
Value Expectancy theory 2
-It suggests that "people orient themselves to the world according to their expectations and evaluations.
-Behavior, behavioral intentions or attitudes are seen as a function of expectancy: the perceived probability that an object possesses a particular attribute or that a behavior will have a particular consequence.
and Evaluation: the degree of affect, positive or negative, toward an attribute or behavioral outcome.
Value expectancy theory 3
Expectancy: person believes that increased effort leads to improved performance.
-instrumentality: person believes that improved performance leads to a certain outcome or reward.
-Outcomes: person values that reward or outcome.
Assumptions of the TRA Model
-Human behavior is under the voluntary control of the individual.
-People think about the consequences and implications of their actions. People are rational.
-Intention must be highly correlated with behavior.
Components of the TRA Model
-Behavior is a function of 2 factors:
Attitude toward a specific action
Subjective norms regarding that action.
-Attitudes toward a specific action:
~What will happen if I engage in this behavior?
~Is this outcome desirable or undesirable.
~Represent the individuals positive or negative evaluation of performing a behavior.
~It is a function of behavioral beliefs.
-Subjective norms regarding that action:
~Motivation to comply: Do I want to do what they tell me? How much? why?
~They reflect the perceived social pressure that individuals feel to perform or not perform a particular behavior.
~Function of: the normative beliefs (others expectations) and individuals motivation to comply with the others expectations.
Theory of Reasoned Action
-Intention: Most proximal determinant of behavior and reflected in a persons willingness and amount of effort exerted to perform that behavior.
~The stronger a persons intention to perform a behaviors the more likely he or she will be to engage in that behavior.
~The longer the time between intention and behavior, the less likely the behavior will be performed.
-Attitude: An individuals positive or negative evaluations about performing a behavior.
-Two types of attitudes:
~Affective: whether or not the behavior will be enjoyable.
~Instrumental: whether or not the behavior will be beneficial/harmful.
Behavioral Beliefs of TRA
-Attitude is a function of behavioral beliefs.
-perceived consequences of carrying out a specific action and a personal evaluation of each of these consequences.--positive and negative expectations.
How do Attitudes and Behavioral beliefs go together?
-Behavioral beliefs: all the positive and negative expectations. example: Positive ~fun, good for me, weight control.
Negative ~TIme consuming, boring, might get injured.
-Attitudes: (affective and instrumental) overall positive or negative evaluations.
Theory of Reasoned Action 2
-Subjective norm: Perceived social pressure that individuals feel to perform or not perform a behavior.
-Two types of subjective norms:
~injunctive norm: whether or not important significan other approve of the person doing the behavior.
~Descriptive norm: whether or not important significant others are also doing the behavior.
-Subjective norm is a function of normative beliefs.
-Perceived expectations of important significant other or groups and the individuals motivation to comply with these expectations.
How does the subjective Norm and Normative beliefs go together?
-Normative beliefs: ALL the positive and negative expectations.
-Subjective Norm: (descriptive and injunctive) overall positive or negative evaluations.
Theory of Planned Behavior
-One of the biggest limitations of the TRA was that it was not useful when people felt they did not have control over the situation.
-Theory of reasoned action evolved into the theory of planned behavior.
-Perceived behavioral control (PBC): Perceived ease or difficulty of performing a new behavior. and Can directly influence intention and can directly influence behavior.
~Perceived conrol: amount of control a person feels they have over exercising regularly.
~Self-efficacy: amount of confidence a person feels they have over exercising regularly.
What is TPB?
People will act on their intentions to do something.
People are rational.
-PBC is a function of control beliefs.
-Control beliefs are the perceived presence of absence of required resources and opportunities.
How do PBC and control beliefs go together:?
-Control beliefs: ALL the positive and negative expectations.
~Positive: lots of time, confident that I can do it.
~Negative: No facility to go to, don't know what to do.
-PBC: (perceived control and self-efficacy) overall positive or negative evaluations. (Can be different for perceived control and self-efficacy).
What are the important constructs of PBC:
-Determinants of exercise:
~Second best: PBC
-Determinants of intention:
~Second best: PBC
~Third best: subjective norms.
Elicitation studies are conducted to determine specific behavioral normative and control beliefs of a population.
- +: feelings about performing the behavior (experiential attitude or affect)
- +: attributes or outcomes of performing the behavior (behavioral beliefs).
- Individuals or groups to whom they might listen who are in favor of or opposed to their performing the behavior. (normative referents)
-Situational or environmental facilitators and barriers that make the behavior easy or difficult to perform (control beliefs and self-efficacy)
Exercise beliefs in healthy populations
-Improves fitness and health
-improve physical appearance
-increases social interaction
-Improves psychological health.
-lack of time
-lack of energy
-lack of motivation .
Normative beliefs from cancer survivor studies:
Individuals or groups most important to them when thinking of exercise;
-spouse, other family memebers, friends, physicians, other person with cancer
Control Beliefs from cancer survivor sstudies:
Factors that helped or prevented them from exercise during treatment:
-Nausea experienced, fatigued, lack of time to exercise, lack of support for exercise, pain and scarceness experienced, lack of counseling for exercise, work at regular job.
USE of TPB in practice
Useful in building individual and community program.
Limitations of these theories:
Variables like demographics, past experiences and personality are not considered.
-Ambiguous definition of perceived behavioral control-- problems in measuring.
-More time between intention and behavior less likely the behavior will happen.
-Weak contribution of subjective norms.
-too early to make conclusive statement about the proximal and distal relationship between intention and behavior.
-Attitude has proven to be a consistent predictor of intention: subjective norms does not appear to be a stable predictor of intention, although support for this influence has been documented.
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