ESSENTIAL OBJECTIVE 1, PART A

THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
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Mayflower Compact
The ruling agreement signed by the settlers of Plymouth, including Pilgrims and others.
Royal Colony
A colony under the direct control of the English monarch.
Proprietary Colony
A colony given to businessmen by the English monarch in exchange for yearly payments.
Circumnavigate
To completely circle the earth.
Jamestown
The first English settlement in the Western Hemisphere. It struggled for several years before becoming successful.
Middle Passage
The phrase used to describe the route and trip by which African slaves were brought to the Western Hemisphere.
Northwest Passage
The mythical waterway thought to connect Europe to Asia through or around the Americas.
Religious Freedom
The freedom to practice one's own religious beliefs without consequences.
Religious Persecution
To punish someone for their religious beliefs.
Columbian Exchange
The global exchange of goods, ideas, people and diseases resulting from the encounter between the people of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.
conquistador
Spanish explorers who claimed land in the Western Hemisphere.
missionary
Someone who attempts to spread their religious beliefs to other groups of people.
charter
A legal document giving permission to a person or company to set up a colony.
Parliament
The ruling legislative body for Great Britain.
Pilgrims
English settlers who sought religious freedom in North America.
Sir Walter Raleigh
English explorer/privateer who established England's first American settlements - the failed Roanoke and then Jamestown.
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer who reached the Philippines and whose ship first circumnavigated the world
William Bradford
A Pilgrim and governor of the Plymouth colony. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
rivalry
an ongoing competition between exploring nations.
Plymouth
Colony settled by the Pilgrims in 1620. It eventually merged with Massachusetts Bay colony.
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in North America