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Sex offenders & criminal Profiling
Terms in this set (247)
-who is he?
-what does he set out to accomplish?
-against which individual?
-what did he claim about this individual?
-Bezan (conservative) MP wants the Manitoba Criminal Code Review Board to deny Vince Li's request to live independently in the community — and he's calling on Manitoba Justice to designate him a high-risk NCR person
this request poses a great risk to public safety.
-James Bezan is misinformed, in denial of any [not criminally responsible] person's therapeutic progress as a patient and denies the science of the futility of a 'high risk' designation.
schizein and phren meaning?
= split and mind
-ability to love
How much was spent transporting magnotta to canada
asking whether a personality disorder is considered "a disease of the mind as a matter of law."..... YES, but have to prove at time of crimes..
-had NPD/borderline/ histrionic
Suggestions for community treatment?
1.Necessity of community treatment programs for NCRMD individuals (based on recidivism, rehospitalization)
2. provide the public with factual information about these individuals.
3. Level of monitoring.
4.Assessment of psychopathy.
5. Actuarial risk assessment tools.
-went to central africa and encountered to guys claiming their penises have been stolen
-happened by shaking hands with some traveller, felt dick shrink then another guy also claimed the same
-they would then tie penisis with string or metal clamp
seen as an example of mass hysteria or delusion, in which a collective cultural belief can be manifested in one person's experience — whether objectively "real" or not.
wheres he from
what did he do?
what did the court charge him with?
-Kelowna gymnastics coach, charged with making and possessing child pornography
-recordings of children between the ages of eight and 17 as they used a toilet and making child pornography from the images of their exposed genital and anal regions
-charged with using a GoPro camera to film up the skirts of women at a Kelowna-area Best Buy store
- 3 counts- 1. voyeurism, making child porn, 3. possessing child porn
what did he do?
-served 16 months in custody after being convicted in Ontario in 1993 of abduction and sexual offences involving four boys.
-, he took an eight-year-old girl from Guelph, Ont., to Toronto. He received a 56-month sentence.
-Weeks after his release in November 2000, Whitmore was found with a 13-year-old boy in a Toronto motel. His sentence for that offence was one year in jail.
-had diary of 13 childrens names ad ages
What did Whitemore do when he got out in 2002?
- fled to BC after accusation of befriending liitle boy, arrests in BC with latex gloves, duct tape, pics of young children.
-got 3 yrs incl 12 months of psychiatric treatment
-repeatedly refused any treatment
What happened in court when a mistake was made with Whitemores trial?
Section 810.1 orders
preventative justice in a justice system that usually requires a person to commit an offence before his liberties are restricted. Court order ran out... & he walked out the court room then...
-Abducted 10 year-old and 14 year-old
-and was never declared a D.O....
His final sentence
- could see him paroled in 6 years
-for the guilty plea, the repeat sex offender was not deemed a dangerous offender, a designation that likely would have brought with it an indefinite prison sentence
how is Whitemore now?
-Recent years only messed up on release conditions & previous year no breaches (curfew, maintain residence, stay in touch with worker)
What did Whitemore enjoy doing with the boys?
-He kept one of the kidnapped boys on a leash.
He made both of his victims call him "master" for days while he repeatedly raped and taunted them.
What was his defense lawyers arguing?
- said he was mentally ill and to treat pedophillia like an illness & put him in psychiatric hospital
-hence, no D.O.
Why is greece ridiculously stupid when it come to disability?
expand a list of state-recognized disability categories to include pedophiles, exhibitionists and kleptomaniacs, pyromaniacs, gamblers, sadomasochists...
-can get medical assessment and used as a gauge for allocating financial assistance (35%) compared to (80%) for heart transplant recipients..
Sex Offender: general information
-how many couple yrs ago?
how many now?
-how many criminal offenders?
- couple years ago: 7063 S.O.
310,410 sex offenders
-Criminal offenders: 425,575
like boys? Girls? %?
**Sex assaults in 2009? against child?
whats the ratio of being sex assaulted in your lifetime? female & male?
how many get reported
-2009- 21000 sex assaults reported,
-2600 assault against children
-1 in 4 get victimized females
-1 in 8 male get victimized
-1 in 10 cases get reported
*Who is Craig Hutchinson?
what did he do? and what did the court find?
-how many months in jail?
- Pierced condom of women he had sex with, to impregnate to stay with him.
-he argued did not invalidate that she consented to have sex.
- Nova Scotia Supreme Court rejected Hutchinson's appeal that the sentence was harsh and excessive and that the woman voluntarily consented to have sex with him.
-court said he deprived her ability to consent to sex.
- faces 18 months in jail
- Will be registered sex offender>*
The Martensville Case
-ron linda and 25 yr old son, and female minor & five other men had babysitting thing going on, had abused and sodomized little children, 190 counts against a dozen children. some of the men were police officers
-by the end all charges were dropped but one
The McMartin Case
mother calls police saying teacher molested child making him drink blood watch baby get head cut off and could fly, big court case charging a bunch of teachers and bucky, teachers got charges dropped, more charges against buckeys but in the end all charges dropped.
-criminal code of canda prior to 1983:
-not possible for woman to rape a man
-Husband: a male commits rape when having sex with someone who isnt his wife
what is considered sexual assault?
-violent/power nature of act
-not limited to intercourse
1. causing bodily harm
Abel et al. (1987)
-rape averages on victims?
-Rapists averaged seven victims
Female-victim child molesters - 20 victims
Male-victim child molesters - 150 victims
when can children testify in court
children can be aske to testify in preliminary hearing if it is found that abuse did occur
-under age of 14 they get interviewed by judge whether they have cognitive ability to testify (some using CCTV)
London Family Court Clinic in Ontario
Staff members working at the clinic are experienced therapists who first conduct a thorough intake assessment focused on the child's particular situation, special needs, and concerns about testifying in court.
what can expert testimony in court argue for sexual abused children
psychologist to testify about research on the validity of children's memories in order to try to overcome the reluctance of many jurors to believe the testimony of children.
Social frameworks testimony'
is the "use of general conclusions from social science research in determining factual issues in a specific case"
-tell jurors something they do not already know or disabuse them of common but erroneous misconceptions"
child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome
about the credibility of a particular witness—in this case, a child who has reported having been sexually abused.
Testimony for the Defence
-about the suggestive nature of the questions in the interview
-about research find- ings on the causes and extent of suggestibility in children and the sometimes-vulnerable nature of memory.
-can question whether the procedures used by pros- ecution experts meet the standards for admis- sibility of scientific testimony
GUIDELINES FOR THE EVALUATION OF CREDIBILITY
-Context in which memory was recalled (Suggestive interviewing or other suggestive techniques)
-content of the memory should be evaluated.
-Individual differences should be considered.
-Corroboration of the alleged event.
statement validity assessment (SVA),
consisting of three parts: a structured interview with the child witness, the CBCA, and the application of the Statement Validity Checklist, which assesses other characteristics of the interview process, the witness, and the investigation
**Interview techniques on abused children
-use of leading questions, or questions that assume a particular answer
-initial use of completely nonleading questions, followed by progressively leading inquiries, but only as necessary.
-The implication of confirmation by other people. (saying they already have information that its happened just need them to confirm)
-Use of positive and negative consequences.
-"Inviting Specula- tion," the child was asked to "pretend" or "figure something out"
consists of "intro- ducing new information into an interview when the child has not already provided that information in the same interview"
*The Criterion-Based Content Analysis Technique
-part of what other procedure?
was developed as a clinical procedure in Germany to distinguish between children's truthful and fabricated allegations
-statement validity assessment (SVA)
Using Anatomically Detailed Dolls
-abused children were comenting about specific sexual acts and demonstrate such acts
-more likely to comment about sexual contact then free response questioning
-some non abused children also reported touching
Guidelines for the use of dolls
1. should not be used to make an initial diagnosis of abuse
2. professionals should be trained about proper interview techniques and the limitations of the procedure
3. Investigators should be aware of the interper- sonal factors, including the age of the child, his or her cultural background, and socioeco- nomic status, that can affect responses
4. Videotaping interviews with the child and the administration of the doll technique has been suggested,
-criminal code 2011, under what age? exceptions?
-where is the lowest age consent?
-under the age of 16.
use to be 14
-Position of authority, employer, teacher, dependancy
- Parts of angola, zimbabwe, mexico.. 12 yrs old
-if person is 14 or 15
-if person is 12-13
- 14or15= less thn 5 years older w/ no authority, except if married
-12to13: less than 2 yrs older w/ no authority
% of sex assualts in home?
-how many ab women have been sexually abused?
-80% of sexual assault incidents occur in the home
- 57% of Aboriginal women have been sex assualted
-what % of males would commit a sex act if they knew they wouldnt get caught?
-what % get reported?
-what % occur in dating relationship?
-what % of disabled women will get sex assualted?
-60% of male said they would commit sex act
-only 6% of sex assualts are reported
-31% of sex assualts occur in dating & acquaintance relationship
-83% of disabled women will be sexually assaulted during their lifetime
Para? Phillia? meanings
Para = beside
Philia = Friendship / love
PSYCHOLOGY OF ADULT SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMS
is a set of symptoms that may co-occur, such that they may be considered to imply a disorder or disease.
rape trauma syndrome
-the different ways & symptoms resulting from rape victims getting raped & respond to the sexual act
-an acute crisis phase and a long-term-reactions phase.
acute crisis phase
is characterized by great disorganization in the survivor's life. It often is described by survivors as a state of shock, in which they report that everything has fallen apart inside.
-racing heart, pain, numbness, disruption in sleep & eating, guilt, hostility, blame, paranoia
may be the second most frequent one after fear. "If only I had locked that window" or "If only I had taken an earlier bus home" are examples of reactions in which the survivors blame their own actions for the rape, or at least imply that different behaviours on their part could have avoided it.
long-term reactions phase
, survivors face the task of restoring order to their lives and re-establishing a sense of equilibrium and the feeling of mastery over their world
-can result in phobias (anything to do with rape results in fear), sexual problems,
2 primary symptoms of PTSD
1) repeated vivid experience of the event
2) Psychic numbing: numbness from surrounding environment
or incorrect beliefs about the causes and consequences of rape
what does the DSM-5 say about paraphillia with non consenting person over atleast 6 months?
-Acted on them
-Marked distress, interpersonal difficulties
-Impairment in social, occupational, other important areas of functioning
"recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving:
1) Nonhuman objects
2) Suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner
3) Children or other nonconsenting persons that occur over the period of at least six months"
*Coercive Paraphilic Disorder:
1) atleast 6 months of recurrent intense sexually aroursed fantasies or urges focused on sexual coercion
2) person is distressed or impaired by these attractions: sought sexual stimulation from forcing sex on 3 or more non consenting persons on seperate occasions
3) not made if Sexual Sadism
What did DSM-5 about difference among men in their propensity to commit rape?
If highly rape-prone men were to be considered pathological, it would be possible to develop diagnostic criteria to identify them
Woodworths study on paraphila concluded?
-Pedophillia was by far the most common among 139 high risk offenders.
-compared to sadism, exhibitionism, voyerism etc.
"deviant rape pattern"
- where prefer raping over intimate sexual interaction
** Greatly expand the number of individuals who will be eligible for indefinite civil commitment (Frances)
*What did DSM-5 say about coercive paraphillia in 2011?
"DSM-5 Rejects Coercive Paraphilia: Once Again Confirming That Rape Is Not A Mental Disorder"
- sex fantasies about ppl in braces and leg, spinal braces..
-sexual fantasies about feces
-sex fantasies about flashing: socially and sexually inadequate
blow to self-esteem
Woodworth study contd.
-high psychopathy led to?
-if engaged in sexual fantasies?
High psychopathy - more likely to have sadistic pariphilia than low OR moderate
-Of those that could be categorized:
41 exclusive child molester, 42 exclusive rapist, 54 of rapist/molester or mixed
-If engaged in sexual fantasy - 82% Deviant, 82% used a weapon, 10% with child fantasies
-what was his profession?
-what was he criticized for doing?
-how long did it take?
-what did he enjoy doing with victims?
-what was he charged for?
-It took close to three decades, criminal charges and dozens of complainant
-amid allegations of having inappropriate relationships with women, sexually assaulting patients and surreptitiously recording some as young as 17 in stages of undress to accumulate a stash of about 10,000 images and videos.
-fondled breasts, vaginas, bodies of females
-16 counts of sex assualt, 1 count for voyerism, 1 count of breaching court order involving 12 women
-legal attention because of theft, burglary, steals
-may take other valuable items as cover
-objects worn by females
Justin ross Harris?
-what was he indicted for?
-what is he facing in court?
-what did he do to face murder charges?
-Father in Georgia hot-car death indicted for allegedly 'sexting' with minors
-facing murder charges in his 22-month-old son's hot car death in 2014, has been indicted on eight charges of "sexting" with minors,
-passive, shy, introverted, submissive
-sexual anxieties, immaturity
-no sexual contact
victim is unaware of presence
-ONLY IF Harass or trespass
-Filming in private place...
-rubbing oneself on another often in crowded places to get sexually excited
What is said about paraphillia in DSM-5?
In remission for how many years?
paraphillia isnt sufficient condition for paraphilic disorder. and doesnt require clinical intervention
-in full remission atleast 5 years in an uncontrolled environmnet
Sexual sadist vs non sadistic sex offender & regard for emotional empathy?
what did the result suggest?
-sexual sadists did not differ from non-sadistic sexual offenders with regard to emotional empathy for either positive or negative stimuli.
-suggests that severe sexual sadism is distinct pathological sexual arousal response, not deficit in emotional processing
Why cant pedophilic disorder remit?
-DSM-5 says pedophillia is a life long condition although symptoms fluctuate
comparison of rapists and child molesters recidivism
-rapists were younger than child molesters & recidisvism risk of rapists steadily decreased with age
-extrafamilial molester (outside family)- little reduction in recidivism risk until age 50
-Intrafamilial molester- recidivism rate was less than 10%
- If intrafamilial molester was in 18-24 yr ol group his recidivism was compareable to rapists
Results are discussed in terms of
- developmental changes in sexual drive
-opportunities to offend.
Intra- and extra-familial child sexual abusers and recidivism
-Extra-familial offenders = more likely to relapse into both sexual and violent criminality than intra-familial offenders
Different types of Rapists?
Anger Rapist (50%)
-More force than necessary, sexual acts to degrade victim.
-Not motivated primarily by sexual gratification
Power Rapist (40%)
-Assert dominance and control victim
-Force will vary depending on submission
-Not motivated primarily by sexual gratification
-Frequent rape fantasies
Sadistic Rapist (5%)
-Obtain sexual gratification by hurting the victim
-High levels of victim injury, including torture & sometimes death
-FREQUENT violent sexual fantasies
Female Sex offenders
is a female teacher who offends against a male student (or a female student, depending on the sexual orientation of the female teacher)
intergenerationally predisposed type,
is characterized as a woman who suffered extensive sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse as a child . This type of offender often works without a co-perpetrator and targets children opportunistically.
does not offend against children on her own, but partakes in the sexual abuse of children in the presence of a male co-offender. The male-coerced type is characterized as a co-dependent woman who often experienced sexual abuse herself during childhood and is now in a dysfunctional relationship with a male who abuses her.
Problem even with classification:
-Knew husband was sexually abusing child and did nothing about it?
-Sleeping w/ child, with absence of sexual touching?
-Sexual exploitation of minor
-"Your friends will all be jealous and think of you as a god,"
-Teen thought it was a legitamate romantic relationship
Female S.O. stats:
-% of S.O. reporting reporting as a victim of?
-higher rate of caucasian
-more liekly to be married & have children
- likely have co-offender
-67% of female sex offender sample reported being the victim of either sexual or physical abuse
Whitaker et al 2008
perpetration of child sexual abuse?
-History of sexual abuse
-Difficulty with intimate relat.
-Harsh discipline as a child
Child Abuse & Neglect
Sexual abuse history among adult sex offenders and non-sex offenders
sex offenders are more likely to have been sexually abused than non-sex offenders, but not more likely to have been physically abused
**4 cogntive distortions
-Protecting self from unpleasant aspects of life by refusing to perceive, acknowledge, or face them
Explain away issues and emotions. Try to justify even though it may be very deviant
LACK OF EMPATHY
Intentionally downplay and understate the truth.
"I only took her for a ride"
Trying to prove one's actions "made sense" or were justified.
occurs when the offender justifies his or her actions by believing that the victim acted or dressed seductively and was asking to be offended against
break down risk factors
(1) stable risk factors,
(2) stable dynamic risk factors
(3) acute dynamic risk factors.
stable risk factors
historical and cannot change.
eg. a history of childhood behavioural problems. (as a child, it cannot be changed)
often is based on professional wisdom, training, and experience. The clinician will conduct a lengthy interview with the offender and, using the information gleaned from the interview, will subjectively determine whether the offender is at risk to reoffend after release from custody.
Stable dynamic risk factors
-behavioural and personality traits that are constant over time but are able to be changed or readjusted.
eg. an offender's sexual preference for victims; these preferences are stable over time but are amenable to change.
acute dynamic risk factors.
are able to change rapidly and are easily readjusted with intervention and treatment.
eg. offender's current mental state (e.g., his or her mood and emotional stability); this state can change rapidly.
Actuarial risk assessments
most commonly used for?
determines risk via ____?
are the most commonly used risk assessments for calculating a sex offender's risk of recidivism
-determine an offender's risk of reoffence via how similar the offender is to other offenders for whom the risk of reoffence is known
-attaching the penile plethysmograph to the offender and then showing him various images, depending on what the evaluator is trying to measure.
*Hanson et al
12 yr follow up of S.Os and concluded what?
- No change in cognitive distortions
-No difference whether sexual, violent, or general
Therapy treatment for S.O.
success- ful completion of a sex offender treatment pro- gram can reduce the rate of sexual reoffence by 40 percent
Cognitive behavioural therapy
Most commonly used
-talk-based psychotherapy that addresses cognitive distortions and beliefs as well as dysfunctional behaviour. During CBT, the sex offender is encouraged to confront the offence that he or she committed and the deleterious consequences for the victim(s)
Olfactory aversion therapy
- therapy trying to associate the crime with an unpleasant stimuli
pictures like vomiting, snakes, embarrasing consequences
-fantasies to achieve arousal, and then he switches to a normal fantasy just before orgasm
-repitition of words until the word has lost its meaning
Seto's response to Shin
- for some, the dolls could be a safer outlet for sexual urges, reducing liklihood that they would seek out child porno or sex
-For others substitute might only aggravate their sense of frustration
-A company is manufacturing real life sex dolls for paedophiles who want to control their sexual impulse
- young as age 5.
Shin Takagi's response to making he dolls
"We should accept that there is no way to change someone's fetishes.
"I am helping people express their desires, legally and ethically. It's not worth living if you have to live with repressed desire."
Internet crimes & childrens risk of victimization
80%+ have internet access = large number of adolescent children who are at risk
pedos and internet
Transcripts of 43 convicted predators were analyzed with computerized text analysis for language specific to each stage of grooming
Risk assessment of pedos in grooming stages for CMC
-Risk assessment more quickly (more in first two stages, than in third stage)
-Accelerated in CMC
-Context more uncertain/unclear
-Move on quicker if appears unlikely/too risky
-women b/w age of ___ have higher rate of domestic violence?
-Any violence occurring between family members
-VERY little attention was paid prior to the 1980s
-Highest rates of domestic violence are experienced by women between the ages of 15 and 25
*Sexual risk in first 2 stages vs 3rd stage?
Sexual: Since risk assessment more in 1st two stages, sexual extremely prevalent by stage 3:
-often without supervision
Types of strategies used by pedos
-93% predators used flattery such as, "you are so beautiful" and "you must be so smart"
-27% used threats
-were willing to travel great distances to meet decoys
-accounts for what % of 911 calls
-intimate partner violence
-accounts for 50% of calls to police
-personality [not gender] is the best predictor of the perpetration of IPV).
-Ab people are three times as likely to be victims of IPV
-2.3 million ppl have been stalked prior to survey
-17% stalked by partner
-IPV declined by 15% b/w 1998 - 2007
Why dont partners leave
-Male promised to change(71%)
-Lack of money (46%)
-Mate needed me (36%)
-Nowhere to go or stay (29%)
-Threats of mate to find/kill (22%)
-Children wanted to go back (19%)
-For sake of children (31%)
-70% return atleast once
. As implied by the label, they were assaultive both inside and outside the home. They used alcohol frequently.
, who could not express feelings, including anger, and whose reaction to conflict was to suddenly explode.
emotionally volatile men
who were char- acterized as being angry, jealous, or depressed. They were violent only toward their wives and showed a buildup of tension leading to bat- tering.
RCMP vs Student on Male & female abuse severity
- severity was rated highest in male to female abuse (male perp, female victim)
-The RCMP considered the female-male, male-male, and female-female scenarios to be more abusive than did the students, though no differences were found for the male-female scenario
Drug addicted babies
Babies born with a substance addictions cry in pain for hours, suffer tremors, respiratory problems and have low birth weight.
Drug addicted babies law?
-BABIES will be taken away at birth from drug-addicted or abused mothers who refuse to seek help, under new state laws that will kick in while the child is still in the womb
Domestic violence & babies
-.pregnant woman who suffer domestic violence will be asked to sign a PRC ordering them to either leave their partner, move in with a relative or seek help through domestic violence counselling.
Consequences of this law
-Mothers mask the fact that theyre being abused, so they stay with abusive partner
Jane (Stafford) Hurshman-Corkum
was a victim of what?
-March 11, 1982: Shot him in the head while he slept in this truck
-bizarre sexual stuff
-physically/mentally abused son
-charged w/ 1st degree, dounf not guilty (self defense)
-after appeal: guilty of manslaughter
- was vocal advocate for IPV
-committed suicide in 1992
R. v Lavallee
-Battered women defence "either you kill me or I'll get you"
-Various Bills since this time have increased awareness:
-abuse of spouse or child as aggravating factor
1) repeated (re) experiencing of the traumatic event OR avoidance of situations, ideas, and feelings associated with the traumatic event
2) Psychic numbing or reduced responsiveness to the environment
the use of equal force or the least amount of force necessary to repel danger when the person reasonably perceives that she or he is in imminent danger of serious bodily harm or death.
or a response to hav- ing been exposed to painful stimuli over which one has no control and finding that no avenue readily exists for escape.
The expert witness can describe three types of reaction to trauma
• Psychological distress or dysfunction • Cognitive reactions • Relational disturbances.
cycle of abuse or cycle of violence
-Men may be loving, nurturing, giving, and attentive to the woman's needs during courtship and per- haps early in the marriage.
- But then there is a tension-building phase—more criticism, verbal bickering, increased strain, and perhaps minor physical abuse.
-This is followed by the violent step in the cycle: an acute battering incident, in which the abuser explodes into an uncontrollable rage, leading to injuries to the woman.
in which the abuser's use of promises and gifts increases the battered woman's hope that violence occurred for the last time."
The most commonly used risk assessment tools
the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment (SARA; Domestic Violence Screening Instrument—Reviews
men vs women vivid fantasy of murdering someone
Canada Homocide rate
-ratio per 100,000
Declines to 44 year low
-In 2010, police reported 554 homicides in Canada, 56 fewer than the year before
-1.62 for every 100,000 people.
Class study on vivid murder:
Yes, No? men
Yes, No? women
-30.7% of the class said yes
-50% of males in attendance said yes and 50% said no
-25.6% of females said yes and 74.4% said no
homocide rate in CND?
-Saskatoon: 3.6 per 100,000
Crime rate increase or decrease and what %?
-down 8% overall
-Reports of some offences did go up last year, however, including extortion, child pornography, aggravated sexual assault, sexual violations against children and identity fraud
luring child via computer in 2013?
increase/ decrease & what %?
-greatest increase, rising 30 per cent in 2013,"
-followed by sexual exploitation, which went up by 11 per cent
-More likely to be killed by someone you know
-44% by acquaintance
-40% by a family member
-44% of female victims killed by intimate partner
-2/3 of the accused had prior criminal history
-½ of the victims had criminal record
-9/10 of murders committed by men & -2/3 of victims are men
Brianna Denison, 19
-Her body was found in a desolate field on the outskirts of Reno
-sexually assaulted and strangled
-Police believe she was killed by a serial rapist with
"calling card." (thong fetish"
What does it say to a profiler when dismemberment follows a murder?
-disposal of evidence
-level of anger & rage
"An educated attempt to provide specific information about a certain type of suspect"
-google; recording/analysis of persons psychological & behavioural characteristics, to assess capabilities in a certain context
***3 goals of profiling
1) Provide the criminal justice system with a social and psychological assessment of the offender
Race, age, employment, religion, marital status...
2). Provide the criminal justice system with a psychological evaluation of belongings found in the possession of the offender
"Souvenirs", photos, porn...
Important for "prime suspects"
3) Provide interviewing suggestions and strategies
Suggest personality appropriate interviewing techniques
personality and motivations of the offender, including characteristic ways of committing crimes and treating victims, left hand/right hand, criminal's age, sex, race, height, and weight.
Serial murder meaning? how many active?
-why so difficult to solve?
Serial murder = 3 or more people with a "cooling off' period.
25-100 currently active
(defined as anything more than three victims in one location and within a single criminal event)
(killings at two or more locations with no emotional cooling- off period between homicides)
organized (nonsocial) criminals
plan their murders, target their victims (who usually do not know the perpetrator), show self-control at the crime scene by leaving few clues, and possibly act out a violent fantasy against the victim, including dismemberment or torture
disorganized (or asocial) criminals.
does not plan his crime in such detail and typically obtains his vic- tims by chance, and behaves haphazardly during the crime
Deductive methods of profiling
are used to infer the background characteristics of an offender.
inductive method of infer- ence
involves developing the profile based on what is known about other similar crimes that have been solved.
3 main types of profiling
1. Profiling historic and political figures
2. Profiling criminals common characteristics
3. Profiling criminal/s from crime scene characteristics
Once the police have a suspect, how do they connect the profile to the individual?
- the better you can investigate it, you will know how to deal with and communicate with the suspect once you locate him
-If we understand the dynamics of the crime, and the personality, then we're better prepared to speak to him and set up an environment where he can share information, should he choose.
-he was a cult leader
-claimed his members owed him 140 wives, and could claim any female in compound as his
-fathered over a dozen children by the harem, some as young as 12-13
smashed the skull of his pregnant wife several times with a club, and stabbed her 21 times with an icepick; clubbed his 5-year-old daughter Kim- berly with three blows, then stabbed her no fewer than ten times; and finally placed his little (age 2) daughter Kristen across his lap, knifed her 17 times, and drove an icepick into her tiny body 15 times.
-said he was robbed, had superficial stab wounds to ribs, staged the crime scene, sits in prison
What assumptions must be met?
-Personality/traits won't change
-Signature won't change
The WACO massacre
-on texas ranch of religious cult
-76 men, women and children lost their lives after FBI set fire to an isolated compound
*MO vs Siggy
M.O- "modus operandi"
-what an offender has to do to accomplish a crime
-Modified and perfected (or sloppy)
-eg. bank robber making everyone undress so they have to get dressed before calling cops or feel embarrased to communicate with one another
Crime scene analysis
is an important part. Detailed analysis generates many specific ques- tions.
criminal-profile generating process
1. study of the nature of the criminal act and the types of persons who have committed like offences in the past
2. analysis of the crime scene
3. examination of the background and activities of the victim or victim
4. formulation of possible motivating factors for all parties involved
5. development of a description of the per- petrator based on overt characteristics from the crime scene & past behaviour
-residence as base, sets out specifically to search for a victim
= emotional fulfillment
-Unique, personal aspects of the crime
-Same specific order of sexual activity
eg. robber making everyone undress then taking pics of them in sexual positions
-Empirical, 'mental map' of the crime-relevant areas where the offender may feel comfortable or possibly reside.
-linked crime scene locations to the probable residence or base of operations of an unknown offender
- encounters a victim while involved in other nonpredatory activities
- commutes or travels to another city or location to search, activity site isn't the residence
- in a position/ situation/ occupation that allows him/her to encounter victims within a controlled area
***What is assumed about offenders and where they operate?
Offenders will often only operate within a limited conceptual space
is to collect relevant information about the deceased such as age, physical charac- teristics, personality, reputation, potential criminal history, habits, hobbies, family structure, romantic relationships, location of residence, and occupa- tion
primary type of evidence
left at each crime scene is physical evidence, such as patterns of evidence (e.g., bloo
such as cause of death, the type of weapon used, the timeline of wounds/death, and whether or not sexual acts were performed
refers to the investigative method used by psychologists or other social scientists to help determine the mode of death in equivocal cases
-mode/ manner of death
is an instrument or physical agent used to bring about death (a bullet, for example). water :drowning, impact from falling
is the pathological agent in the body that resulted in the death (excessive bleeding),
Manner of death
is considered to be natural, accident, homicide or suicide
why is it necessary?
- discover the state of mind of the victim preceding death
-assess factors, including behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and relationships, of an individual who is deceased.
*what can cause violence in males & be factor in school shootings
CYNICAL SHYNESS CAN PRECIPITATE VIOLENCE IN MALES, SAY RESEARCHERS, AND MAY BE FACTOR IN SCHOOL SHOOTINGS
Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System:
-Took the 'best features' of various crime linkage systems
-It has been close to 20 years since its official implementation in Canada
viclas developed to investigate:
-all solved/ unsolved/ attempted homicides
-solved/unsolved sexual assaults
-missing persons where foul play is suspected
-an extreme form of shyness that predominantly affects males and can lead to violent behavior.
-and desperately want to be socially engaged with other people.
-But often lacking in social skills, these individuals get rejected by their peers and then avoid social connections because of the resulting pain
a "cult of one."
"They end up alone and start hating the people who reject them. This allows the cynically shy person to distance himself from the hurt but also makes it easier for him to retaliate with violence
-Webster maintained the RCMP was a toxic work environment and improving it would also improve the health of his clients.
or the assignment of police officers to particular neigh- bourhoods so that they become familiar with local concerns and priorities.
Negative press coverage
inadequate supervisor support
Fellow officer killed
killing in the line of duty
Stressors capactity on police officers
the capacity of work tasks and environments to elicit stress from workers may very much depend on who specifically is considering what particular stressor."
-delivery of death notifications may be more stressful then dealing with aggressive crowds for some, while vice versa for others
("driving while black") to reflect the ten- dency of some patrol officers to concentrate on visible minorities as possible offenders.
Provide psychotherapy services:
-After a shooting incident/critical incident
-Anger management/ stress reduction
large % of police contacts involve ppl mentally ill.
the presence of police bias against various visible-minority groups in Canada
denying civil rights
criminal enterprise: resale of evidence
major bribes: above 1000
Lower level corruption
role malfeance: destroy evidence, protecting crooked cops
Police selection tests:
-The MMPI and the CPI. General personality measures such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
-California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
relationships b/w tests and police performance?
• Relationship b/w MMPI scales and police officers' job tenure, automobile accidents, super- visors' ratings, and job problems.
• CPI has been used less often, scale scores were closely related to trainees' academy performance and to supervisors' ratings.
was to detect a deliberate and unsophisti- cated attempt on the part of respondents to present themselves in a favourable light
• Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI)
to measure the suitability of personality attributes and behaviour patterns of law enforce- ment candidates
"Big Five" personality features?
(openness to new expe- rience, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extra- version, and neuroticism or "OCEAN")
, that is, placing the testee in a simulated police situation to evoke samples of the behaviour he or she will show on the job.
Poly graph testing
used as test
: "is assisting the police officer toward improving his or her lifestyle through learning new, health-enhancing behaviours and ideas.
types of hostage takers
the political activist or terrorist, the criminal, the mentally disturbed person, and the prisoner
Police selection procedure
-top 4 factors?
-% of recomendation letters & cognitive abilities?
Background checks - 99.4%
Medical exams - 98.7%
Selection interviews - 98.1%
Personality tests - 91.6%
-Rec. letters - 46.5%
-Cognitive abilities - 46.5%
Differences in Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Deception
Dark Personalities & Deception
Perceive themselves as good liars
Ps and Ms: related to the propensity to lie
Different reasons for deception
E.g., narcissism and self-gain
success in deception
Psychopaths less successful at deception (decreased credibility of videotaped deception)
-beter able to mimic remorse and fear (help with ftf deception)
Success with CMC
motivational enhancement effect (reverse of FtF)
-lack of nonverbals, reliance on language, anonymity
-incoherent, lots of disfluencies, hostile words, less positive emotion, less reference to others
more offensive, no difference in first person pronoun
FtF and CMC negotiations of dark personalities
-DTs better at negotiating FtF than CMC
-Low DTs better at negotiating CMC than high DTs
-rate others as more hostile
-higher on all 3 DT traits
-Increased negative emotion
-Increased swear words
-Increased anger words
INSENSITIVITY TO SUFFERING
Theories of Psychopathy
Empathy -> Prosocial Behaviour
1st person pain perceptions task
baseline- HR resting, 3 minutes
cold pressor- immerse hand in cold water, rate intensity every 15s
First-Person Pain Perception
- A heightened pain threshold in psychopaths
- No difference in pain tolerance or threshold
Third-Person Pain Perception
Psychopathic traits were related to a diminished ability to accurately detect pain in others
3rd person pain perception task
-watched clip of shoulder pain
-rates percieved pain of each clip
Third Person Pain Perception:
Psychopathic characteristics: decreased perceptual sensitivity to pain expression in others
-No response bias
Psychopathic Characteristics: Decreased pain tolerance & no significant differences in subjective ratings or physiological activity
-Lack of somatic awareness Impulsivity, irresponsibility, impaired decision making, decreased aversive conditioning
The big bad wolf? The relation b/w the dark triad and the interpersonal assessment of vulnerability
o Psychs picked out the same type of victim every time they did the study, all through non verbal behaviour
o Psychs also have better memory for vulnerable individuals
Cognitive vs affective
-Understanding another's mental or emotional state
-Feeling what another's emotional state
Pleasure at another's misfortune
Possibly a less severe
derivative of sadism
- likely to occur when misfortune happens to superordinate (boss)
Why do offenders groom?
To prepare victims for abuse / overcome resistance
Maintain ongoing access to the victim
Decrease likelihood of disclosure
Who is groomed by offenders?
People who are around the situation
Camp outs and sleep overs
Child care for overnights or weeks in summer
Rides especially for teens
Male sexual offender profile?
Volunteered with Big Brother's and Big Sister's
Started fostering children when he was single in his early 20's
Pastor in a large church in LMD
Father of 3 (Offended against 2 of 3 children)
Took kids on camping trip and outings
Offended sexually against males ages 5-16
Charged in relation to the 20 + victims that disclosed abuse. Over 50 possible victims identified
-offended over 25 yr period
-offended against 80-100 children
Offenders Grooming technique
-Preventing discovery/ disclosure
-Targeted single mothers and would help with taking stuff to dump or "man jobs", picking up kids when mom not available
-Telling his wife not to trust one of the victim's around their children
-Having children disciplined for being inappropriate with him
-Appearing to be at same peer level with victims (joking about parents)
-Providing parents advice, saying he needs to spend time with victim
Preventing discovery / disclosure
-Normalized sexual contact by wrestling, massaging, playing games
-Normalized contact during sleep that increased over time
- long hours to drain offender
-got him to write apology letter to victims
-asked if she could read letter, then said the victim would have unanswered questions
- C.M started writing more about offence
sentences to 8 yrs in jail
-lifetime ban from children
12 yr old daughter tiana had told her friend that her father has been making her watch porn since she was 6
Douglas age 44, married w/ 2 children
Full tim BC ambulance paramedic
Ownder house in upper mission
o He was hard, asked her to touch his penis, its important for the trial and knowing if it was sexual assault
o Tiana wanted to refer to her dad as Doug, not Dad
o Began sexual abuse in Pit meadows
-o Doug would ask for her panties before being able to go do things, he would smell it and masturbate
o Doug asked her to touch herself and gave her a vibrator to use
when he was questions & arrested?
-• Stated tiana caught him watching porn but he just shut the door
• He talked about a guy Jeff coming over to watch porn with him
• Doug explained that Tammy was uncomfortable with porn so he didn't watch it with her
-After 2-3hrs confessed
•Releases sept 12 2013,
-served 90 days in prison
Had to get help, couldn't see family, probabtion etc
Convicted invitation to sexual touching and exposure to child of pornography
-keeps paying for child care, works in rigs as MD
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