15 terms

Placebo Effect

STUDY
PLAY
Placebo Effect
this is a positive non-specific / contextual effect of therapy (does not have to do with the active ingredient or the procedure itself)
Nocebo Effect
this is a negative non-specific / contextual effect of therapy (does not have to do with the active ingredient or the procedure itself)
Graded Outcome
this is an outcome that can be scaled; ex: pain; more effected by placebo
Dichotomous Outcome
this is a "yes or no" outcome; ex: pregnancy; less effected by placebo
Placebo Effect
this occurs when the patient experiences half or more of the medication benefit
Nocebo Effect
this occurs when the patient has to discontinue a placebo due to side effects
Regression to the Mean
this is when a patient who is on a placebo gets better; often happens with diseases that get better on their own (ex: colitis); NOT the same as placebo effect
Neurotransmitter Changes
these changes occur when taking a placebo because of our expectations of what therapy will do to us
Cost
increasing this often gives people the sense that their treatment is more efficacious than an alternative treatment with a decreased this
Subjective Measurement
this is a measurement of how the patient feels after getting a treatment (real or placebo)
Objective Measurement
this is a measure of the actual physiological differences in the patient after getting a treatment (real or placebo)
Studies Needing a Placebo Arm
these include studies with graded, subjective outcomes
Studies Not Needing a Placebo Arm
these include studies with major objective, dichotomous outcomes (eg death)
Outcome
this is the major determinant of whether or not your study needs a placebo, not the treatment itself
When a Placebo is Unethical
when a credible placebo would be too risky or when an established treatment exists that is known to have a major benefit on a major outcome (death/long-term disability) aka warfarin vs dabigitran trial (patients would have died without either or on a placebo)