U.S History Unit 9
Terms in this set (118)
What was the capital of North Vietnam? South Vietnam?
North Vietnam- Hanoi
South Vietnam- Saigon
What did OPEC do that hurt the American economy so much during the early 1970s?
OPEC hurt the American economy by shutting off the flow of oil for almost a year, then when it's resumed, the price is raised by about 400%.
What president oversaw the passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
President Lyndon B. Johnson
Who were the respective leaders of North and South Vietnam at the beginning of the Vietnam War?
North- Ho Chi Minh and South Vietnam- Ngo Dien Diem.
What act passed by Congress helped overturn the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and thus limited the power of the president?
War powers act. -181 pg
What is détente? Give an example.
Détente- Reduction of tension between superpowers. Between United States and Soviet Union. An example is- SALT.
What were the results of the Watergate scandal? Name three.
Richard Nixon resigns, Gerald Ford becomes president, and Ford pardons Nixon.
Why was Richard Nixon not prosecuted for his involvement in the Watergate scandal?
He resigned before he was impeached, and was on good terms with Gerald Ford, the new president.
What was the purpose of the 26th Amendment?
The purpose of the 26th amendment was to give 18 year old the right to vote.
What is executive privilege?
The executive privilege was what Nixon tried to do to avoid giving up the tapes. Executive privilege is the right to maintain privacy.
What was the agreement reached between Egypt and Israel that helped to stabilize the Middle East?
Camp David Accords.
What was Jimmy Carter's major foreign objective as president
What arguments can be made suggesting the United States won the Vietnam War? To the contrary, what arguments could be made suggesting an American loss in this war?
An argument that they won- body count more casualties for Vietnam
We lost- South Vietnam falls to communists.
Discuss and explain the role of the media in the Vietnam War. How did the media become such a major influence on the shaping of American foreign policy?
The media became such an influence to show what was occurring in Vietnam. The media did not have restrictions and limits in locations. The pictures did not always match up with the stories provided that were occurring in Vietnam. The pictures fed the anti-war movement.
While many historians would site Nixon's presidency as a foreign policy victory he is best remembered for Watergate. Why did Nixon's domestic problems overshadow his foreign policy achievements?
Nixon's domestic problems overshadows his foreign policy achievements because the Watergate is known as the biggest scandal in America's history. His resignation overshadows everything, leaving his status as a great president to be reduced.
Review Graphic Organizer
Indochina- Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam- was referred to a battleground following world war 2. _____ looked to continue its colonial control over this region
France is defeated at
Dien Bien Phu
The _____ overran the French and garnered their freedom from France with the victory.
Geneva accords divides Vietnam at the 17th parallel
The US becomes involved by trying to mediate a temporary divide of Vietnam at the 17th parallel.
National liberation front - Viet Cong is born
Due to widespread corruption, religious intolerance and a desire to finally rid Vietnam of a colonial influence, a guerilla force emerge in the South. This group would use guerilla warfare tactics creating a problem for government of South Vietnam, and later the US.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Due to his religious persecution of his citizenry, America approves of a coup to remove Dien from Power. He was summarily executed by the military.
A fictitious event would change the war forever. President Johnson claimed American destroyers were attacked by North Vietnam. The event never happened. Congress gave Johnson broad powers to escalate the war- with little oversight.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
The surprise attack of over 100 cities in the South on the Tet Lunar Holiday served as a major political defeat for the United States. America would never recover from this event. Johnson would decline to run for reelection as a result.
Nixon's policy would begin in which American would slowly turn the war over to the South Vietnamese government and military. The gradual withdraw would take four years.
United States invades Cambodia and Laos
They feared of Communism spreading with the domino effect.
Johnson escalation of war
When Johnson was president, he greatly increased our presence in Vietnam. In 1963, 30,000 troops were sent. But, by 1967 - 560,000 troops were there.
The anti- war movement evolved during the Vietnam war due to
SDS (Students for a Democratic Society)
What signified an end to the War in Vietnam?
An end to the war was signified when Saigon fell.
Why did the United States lose the Vietnam War?
The United States never knew all the information, they did not know who they were fighting against- so they did not know the enemy, the objective of it, and were not able to convert South Vietnam to a democratic place.
The role of Television led us to believe
America had a larger body count of our enemies killed, but were unable to win the war politically.
It damaged American's credibility as it demonstrated the strength and will of the enemy.
Ho Chi Minh trial
In an attempt to destroy Ho Chi Minh trial, the US bombed Cambodia and Laos and later sent ground troops there to defeat the enemy.
Vietnamese freedom fighters associated with the defeat of French Colonial forces after World War 2,
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Passed by congress in 1964 after armed conflict allegedly took place between United States and Vietnamese naval forces. As a result President Lyndon Johnson was given broad powers to expand the war in Vietnam without Congressional approval. As a result Johnson greatly increased American military troops in Vietnam starting in 1965.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Vietnamese born aristocrat whom the United States threw their support behind after the Geneva Accords. His policies in South Vietnam were criticized as being out of touch with his people, especially along religious lines. He was also perceived as extremely corrupt and used American aid to support himself and his close allies.
Also referred to the National Liberation Front. This group of rebels existed in South Vietnam and utilized primarily guerrilla warfare tactics against South Vietnamese and and United states military forces.
Leader of United States military forces in Vietnam from 1964-1968. Often suggested that America was on the cusp of victory in Vietnam. His credibility was greatly destroyed by the Tet offensive.
American theory and opinion regarding the spread of communism adopted shortly after World War 2 ended. American politicians and military analysts feared the spread of communism and suggested its spread could be irreversible if the United States did not overtly try to halt it abroad.
Ho Chi Minh Trial
Name given to the supply line existing between North and South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. This line allowed for the flow of weapons and soldiers into the countryside of South Vietnam. Its existence in the neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia led to air strikes against it during the Nixon administration.
Nguyen Van Thieu
Military leader and later president of South Vietnam who succeeded Ngo Dinh Diem after his death.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese revolutionary and communist who spearheaded Vietnam's desire for independence after World War II. He eventually became the leader of North Vietnam after the Geneva Accords were abandoned. He died in 1969 before Vietnam was unified.
Policy implemented by the Nixon administration that would provide for the war in Vietnam to be gradually turned over to the government and military of South Vietnam. This policy would allow for the gradual withdrawal of American troops.
Dien Bien Phu
Village in Northwestern Vietnam that fell to Vietnamese revolutionaries in 1954. The defeat signaled an end to French colonial control of Vietnam and led directly to formal negotiations between France and Vietnam at Geneva in 1955.
American National security adviser and later Secretary of State that is given credit for successfully negotiating an end to American participation in the Vietnam war.
Responsible for the massacre taking place in the southern village of My Lai in March of 1968. United States military personnel brutally murdered and tortured approx. 100-500 Vietnamese civilians in the ugliest scandal of the Vietnam War.
American officials assured a number of South Vietnamese military leaders that they would not oppose an effort to topple Diem's regime.
Military leaders staged a coup in South Vietnam, seized control of the Government and executed both Diem and his brother.
Why was it difficult for the United States to locate and destroy the greater portion of the Ho Chi Minh Trail?
The trail goes through other countries, so it was hard to cross.
Read pg 178
With what European country did Vietnam go to war following World War II?
At the Geneva Accords in 1955 Vietnam was divided into North and South, along which boundary were the countries divided?
What two religious groups were at odds in South Vietnam providing America difficult problems supporting the government?
Buddhist and catholics.
According to Lyndon Johnson, what happened in the Gulf of Tonkin?
He believed that the North Vietnamese patrol boats attacked two of United States destroyers.
With what is William Calley associated with during the Vietnam war?
My Lai Massacre.
What was the purpose of Vietnamization?
It was meant to move troops without the use of defeat or compromise. The purpose was to hand off war to the government of South Vietnam.
Johnson gets challenged
Lyndon Johnson gets challenged in the Democratic primary.
Vietnam war worsens due to the effects of the Tet Offensive- making home
Students protests and the anti-war movement grows louder and more demonstrative.
Third party candidate will emerge
He is supported in the deep South. The republican nominee is former Vice- President Richard Nixon
Robert Kennedy first is a democratic front-runner
Wins California primary and then is killed.
Democrats struggle to choose a candiate
They then choose vice president Hubert Humphrey.
In March 1968 Johnson
withdraws from the Democratic primary and does not seek reelection in 1968.
Who wins presidency of 1968?
Richard Nixon- Humphrey- Wallace
Republican, democrat, American independent.
Democratic party fractures in 1968
E. Mcarthy challenges Johnson- wins New Hampshire primary because he is an anti- war candidate. R. Kennedy becomes more outspoken against Johnson and Vietnam War, (Frontrunner) - leaving Johnson to withdraw from presidency.
Coalition of Middle Eastern countries who banded together to better control the price of oil.
Former Governor of Maryland who served as Vice- President from 1969- 1973. He left office due to charges of income tax evasion.
Treaty reached between the United States and Soviet Union limiting the number of nuclear missiles each country could potentially utilize.
Agreement signed between Israel and Egypt resulting in the return of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt while also recognizing the existence of Israel by an Arab State.
Camp David Accords.
Republican Speaker of the House who ascended to the presidency in 1974 but lost the 1976 presidential election.
Scandal that plagued the Nixon administration involving an illegal break in at Democratic Nation Headquarters in 1972.
Expression used to describe the activity used to improve relations between the United States and China.
Ping Pong Diplomacy.
Act passed overturned the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution requiring the president to consult the Congress within 90 days if troops are assigned.
War Powers Act. (1973)
Gave 18 year olds the right to vote in the United States.
Nuclear power plant accident taking place in Pennsylvania that warned nation of problems associated with the use of nuclear energy.
The Three Mile Island.
Middle Eastern country whose turn to fundamental Islamic beliefs under the Ayatollah Khomeini led to problems within the United States.
American president elected in 1968 whose presidency ended with his resignation in 1974.
American President and former governor of Georgia who's presidency focused on the improvement of human rights.
is formed in efforts to win Richard Nixon a second term as president of the United States.
Saturday Night Massacre
The Saturday Night Massacre was the term used by political commentators to refer to U.S. President Richard Nixon's dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus on October 20, 1973, during the Watergate scandal.
Role of Executive Privilege
the privilege, claimed by the president for the executive branch of the US government, of withholding information in the public interest.
What part did the U.S. Supreme Court play in the Watergate scandal?
It ruled that Nixon had to turn over all of the audio tapes of White House conversations.
18 mins gap on tape
The tape of the conversation Richard Nixon had conveniently did not have 18 minutes worth of stuff on the tape. Three charges of impeachment are filed by the United States House of Representatives for obstruction of justice and misuse of government agencies.
Nixon resigns presidency
Nixon resigns presidency because he was about to face possible impeachment and removal from office.
Gerald Ford sworn in
Gerald Ford becomes president and he pardons Nixon of any wrongdoing associated with the Watergate break- in and subsequent cover up.
A former attorney general, I served as Nixon's campaign manager for the 1972 election.
I was fired as White House counsel after I began to reveal what I knew about the cover-up and the payments of hush money.
As Nixon's chief of staff, I suggested obstructing the FBI investigation of Watergate by warning the Bureau of CIA involvement.
Washington Post reporters who helped to break the Watergate Scandal.
Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward.
I was Nixon's chief domestic adviser and one of the leaders of the White House Palace Guard who directed the cover-up.
What was the most damaging evidence in the Watergate Scandal?
The unexplained gaps.
The role of DEEP Throat
Deep Throat is the pseudonym given to the secret informant who provided information to Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of The Washington Post in 1972 about the involvement of United States President Richard Nixon's administration in what came to be known as the Watergate scandal.
George McGovern's role in Watergate
George only won in one state. He lost presidency by a large margin against Richard Nixon.
Plumbers in the Watergate scandal
the plumbers were the 5 burglars who were trying to help Richard Nixon's presidency. They broke in to the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate office.
Some Economic Problems of the 1970s:
US abandons gold standard, stagflation, (inflation and unemployment) interest rates skyrocket, energy crisis begins, and stock market plummets.
Foreign Policy Issues:
expand war into Laos and Cambodia, 1972 Olympics/ Black September, Yom Kippur War, OPEC embargo, and Iranian Hostage Crisis.
Foreign Policy Victories:
Ping Pong Diplomacy, Nixon visits China and USSR, Signing of SALT, Vietnam War ends, Detente between superpowers, and Camp David Accords.
Women's liberation movement, NOW (National Organization for Women), Roe. Vs Wade, 3 mile Island, pentagon papers released, Watergate scandal, and 1976 election.
Influence of Supreme Court:
Miranda Vs. Arizona, Gideon Vs. Wainwright, Mapp Vs. Ohio, Swann Vs. Charlotte, and Mecklenberg School Board.
Pop Culture Influence
Battle of Sexes, (Billy Jeanking beats Bobby Riggs), Rising Influence of TV, Disco, 1970s movies, Studio 54, Sexual revolution
Read Pg 186
The Kent State Massacre
Occurred on May 4th, 1970, which fed nations doubt in authority figures. Members of the Ohio National Guard fired into an anti-war crowd of Kent State University demonstrations killing four and wounding nine.
Popular fads in the 1970s
mood rings, lava lamps, sea monkeys, smiley face stickers, and pet rocks.
Popular movies of the 1970s
Taxi Driver, Rocky, Jaws, Star WArs, Rocky, Chinatown, etc.
African-american author of Roots, outlined his family history from 1767 Africa to the United States through the slave trade which was adapted into a tv series in 1977.
An African- American woman examining the Black American experience as never before. Early works: The bluest eyes, Sula, and Song of Solomon.
Major spokesperson for the women's movement and continued to push for progress, similar to Betty Friedan in the 1960s.
Roe Vs. Wade Case
Legalized abortion throughout the country. The right of a woman to choose an abortion became synonymous with the Women's movement.
Elected to San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1977 and helped pass a gay rights ordiance in San Francisco. An anti-gay conservative who opposed Milk's lifestyle and demand for greater freedoms killed Milk.
Studio 54 and Paradise Garage
popular Disco clubs.
Sexual revolution of the 1970s
Disco and drugs were meant to seduce people
Who did Nixon defeat for reelection in the 1972 presidential campaign?
What are two examples demonstrating improved United States relations with both China and the Soviet Union?
Ping Pong Diplomacy and 1972 Nixon visits China, and for Soviet Union- Detente and signing of SALT.
What are three issues that contributed to America's worsening economic situation in the 1970's?
Abandoning gold, stagflation standard, interest rate skyrockets, and energy crisis.
Who were the candidates for the presidency in the 1976?
Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter.
What were two examples of deteriorating United States relations in the Middle East during the 1970's?
Yom Kippur War and Iranian Hostage Crisis.
What signified an improvement for Women's rights advocates during the 1970's?
Battle of the Sexes, NOW, and ROE Vs. Wade.
What event spurned a greater environmental awareness in the United States during 1970's?
Three Mile Island Leakage.
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