APK 4400 - Imagery
Terms in this set (50)
A form of simulation that involves recalling from memory pieces of information stored from experience and shaping those pieces into meaningful images
The language of the brain
the brain can't tell the difference between an actual physical event and the vivid imagery of the same event
Equivalent terms to imagery
visualization, mental rehearsal, symbolic rehearsal, covert practice, and mental practice
Imagery combined with other psychological strategies _________
5 Key Characteristics of Imagery Process
the senses that are being employed (tactile, olfactory, etc.)
internal (1st person) and external (3rd person)
when you're imaging from an external perspective
the author-agent performing the behavior/skill in the images (yourself or someone else)
the extent to which the images are intentional, or spontaneous (triggered)
Where do athletes use imagery?
More in competition than training
When do athletes use imagery?
Before, during, and after practice.
Outside of practice.
Before, during, or after competition.
Why do athletes use imagery?
For motivational and cognitive functions
Motivational Specific, Motivational General-Arousal,
Motivational Specific (MS)
Focuses on enhancing motivation and stress and arousal regulation to an extent
Motivational general-arousal (MG-A)
Does with psyching up and calming down (all about arousal)
Motivational General-mastery (MG-M)
has to do with building up and maintaining the appropriate motivation and maintaining that focus throughout the performance. Related to self-efficacy. Used to large extent
Cognitive Specific (CS),
Cognitive General (CG)
Cognitive Specific (CS)
focusing on skill learning and development and skill execution and performance enhancement
Cognitive General (CG)
focuses on strategy and game plan learning and development as well as the execution of that strategy
What do athletes image?
Positive or negative character of images, senses involved, perspective
visualizing the execution of a skill from your own vantage point (1st person)
visualizing yourself from the perspective of an outside observer (3rd person)
Is there one imagery perspective best to use at all times?
Elite athletes use _____ perspective more than non-elite athletes
Internal perspective produces an increase in _____ activity
Internal Perspective is better to use if
movements are simple and reaction time is crucial
External perspective is better to use if
tasks emphasize form or body shape
Factors in the Effectiveness of Imagery
1. Nature of the task
2. Skill level of the performer
3. Imaging ability
4. Combination with practice
skills that are predictable in nature; you can plan your responses (gymnastics, bowling, figure skating)
Skill level of the performer
imagery helps performance for novice and experienced performers; effects somewhat stronger for experienced performers
imagery is more effective when individuals are higher in their ability to imagine; have better vividness and control
Combination with practice
imagery should be used in addition to, NOT instead of physical practice
environment is highly variable; hard to prepare responses (soccer, basketball, football)
5 Theories of How Imagery Works
1. Psychoneuromuscular theory
2. Symbolic learning theory
3. triple code model
4. Bioinformational theory
5. psychological skills explanations
Imagery programs muscles for action.
Imagined events innervate the muscles They strengthen neural pathways
Symbolic Learning Theory
Imagery helps us understand movement patterns.
Imagery functions as coding system (mental blueprints; learn skills by becoming familiar with what needs to be done)
Images made of stimulus and response propositions
Statements that describe specific features of the scenario to be imagined
Statements that describe the imaginer's response to the particular scenario
Triple Code Model
Primary importance on psychophysiology of imagery and understanding the imagery parts
3 essential parts of imagery
1. The image itself
2. The somatic response
3. The meaning of the image to the individual
Psychological Skills Hypothesis
Theory that imagery develops mental skills; imagery develops and refines mental skills and reduces anxiety (concentration and confidence; optimal arousal and attentional levels)
PETTLEP Model of Imagery
Timing of the movement (real time);
Learning the content of the movement;
imagining what healthy body parts and muscles feel like
Keys to Effective Imagery
use all the senses to make images as vivid and detailed as possible
Learn to manipulate your images so they do what you want them to do when you want them to do it
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