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54 terms

Joints and Body Movements-A&P

types of joints and classification of joints
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Cartilaginous Joint
typically allows a slight degree of movement (amphiarthroses)
Fiberous Joint
Essentially immoveable (synarthroses) joints
Cartiaginous Joint
includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis
Fiberous Joint
sutures (skull) are the most remembered examples
Cartilaginous Joint
cartilage connects the bony portions
Synovial Joint
have a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrouding a joint
Synovial Joint
all are freely moveable (diathroses)
Fiberous Joint
bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue
Synovial Joint
include the hip, knee, and elbow joints
Suture
joint between most SKULL bones
Pivot
joint between the axis and atlas (synovial joint)
Ball & Socket
hip joint (synovial)
Condyloid
joint between forearm bones and wrist
Hinge
elbow (synovial)
Hinge
interphalangeal joints (synovial)
Gliding
intercarpal joints (synovial)
Pivot
joint between the skull and vertebral column
Condyloid
joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones (synovial)
Articular Cartilage
keeps bone ends from crushing when compressed; resilient
Ligaments, fibrous capsule and muscle tendons
resists tension placed on joints
Synovial fluid
lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces
Synovial fluid
keeps joints from overheating
Ligaments, fibrous capsule and muscle tendons
helps prevent dislocation
Abduction
away from midline
Adduction
towards midline
Circumduction
"cone"; flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction
Depression
move body part downward
Dorsiflexion
up on heel of foot; toe towards shin
Elevation
move body part upward
Eversion
sole of body part outward
Extension
increase angle @ joint
Flexion
decrease angle @ joint
Gliding
one body part slides past another
Inversion
sole of body part inward
Plantar flexion
sole of foot pushes downward; calf raise
Pronation
opposite of supination; palm down
Protraction
move structure anteriorly
Retraction
move structure interiorly
Rotation
move the bone around its own axis
Supination
anatomical position; palm up (holding soup)
Condyloid
knuckles
Plane
sacroiliac joints
Plane
intercarpal joints
Plane
femoropatellar joint of the knee
Ball & Socket
hip and shoulder joints
Condyloid
radiocarpal
Plane
proximal tibiofibular joint
Saddle
carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
Hinge
Elbow, knee, and interphalangeal joints
Pivot
Joint between C1 and C2
Shoulder
rotator cuff muscles are important in stabilizing this joint; capsule reinforced only anteriorly by ligaments; articular surfaces shallow
Knee
three joints in one; capsule incomplete anteriorly; has menisci and intracapsular cruciate ligaments
Elbow
capsule is loose; reinforced by medial and lateral collateral ligaments; articular surfaces most important in ensuring joint stability
Hip
articular surfaces deep and secure; capsule heavily reinforced by ligaments and muscule tendons; intracapsular liagmentum teres. Extremely stable joint