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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
World History 9 1.1. Outline
Terms in this set (20)
Middle Age People suffered from
Plague and War
Survivors wanted to
Celebrate Life and the human spirit. The Questioned the Catholic church b/c it told them to suffer. They questioned INSTITUTIONS because they did not allow people to advance
They began to reject Medival Values and look up to
Classical for ideas
was an explosion of creativity in Europe between the years 1300 and 1600
REBIRTH. In this case, it was a rebirth of ART and WRITING.
The Renaissance took place in Italy first becaue it had 3 ADVANTAGES
a. Thriving Cities
b. Wealthy Merchant class
c. Classical Heritage of Greece and Rome
a. Northern Italy had many cities because of the OVERSEARS TRADE spurred on by the CRUSADES/WARS.
b. Cities were also a place where IDEAS were exchanged.
c. The PLAGUE reduced the population of cities by up to 60%. tHIS ACTUALLY HAD 2 POSITIVE/GOOD effects.
i. Less WOrkers means HIGER WAGES
ii. Less Business means: Time to pursue/learn about ART INTERESTS.
Merchants and the Medici:
a. Italy was made up of many CITY STATES, each of which ran its own city.
b. Many citizens were involved in Political Life
c. The class that was the most powerful was the MERCHANT CLASS.
d. Merchants did not inherit SOCIAL RANK. They believed in the principle of INDIVIDUAL MERIT (IF YOU WORKED HARD YOU WOULD BE SUCCESSFUL). This became a THEME OF THE RENAISSANCE.
e. The Medici ruled FLorence. THey did not actively participate in government, but held influence over the rulers because they gave them LOANS OR MONEY!
f. COSIMODE MEDICI was de facto (just was, thats the way it was) of Flroence from 1434 to the 1460s. His grandson, LORENZO T
g. The Medici's aided the Renaissance by PATRONIZING THE ARTS. The took part in the artsy stuff going on.
a. Renaissance artists and writers rejected Middle Age ART WORK much like they rejected MIddle Age values. They revered artwork of the GREEKS AND ROMANS.
b. Another reason the RENAISSANCE BEGAN IN ITALY is that ehre are many ROMAN RUINS there to study. Also, many GREEK MANUSCRIPTS from the BYZANTINE EMPIRE came to ROme after CONSTAANTINOPLE fell to the Turks in 1453.
As scholars studied Greeek texts, they developed a new
OUTLOOK ON LIFE as they became influenced by the CLASSICAL IDEAS.
Renaissance writers and scholars are considered
HUMAN POTENTIAL. They developed an INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT called HUMANISM. It focused on HUMAN POTENTIAL and ACHIEVEMENTS.
They studied the HUMANITIES
which included HISTORY, LITERATURE & PHILOSOPHY.
Many Humanists suggested that you did not have to
SUFFER while on earth. They celebrated MATERIAL LUXURIES.
While most people in the RENAISSANCE remained devout CATHOLICS
the RENAISSANCE was SECULAR (NON RELIGIOUS) or worldly.
The CATHOLIC CHURCH LEADERS even became MORE WORLDY as they:
a. Enjoyed Material Luxuries
b. Good Music
c. Fine Foods
and WEALTHY FAMILIES were great PATRONS OF THE ARTS.
A PATRON is one who
PAYS FOR ARTWORK. Many were patrons to emphasize their own importance.
RENAISSANCE WRITERS coined/made up the phrase
UNIVERSAL MAN. Only a small percentage of people were artists but everyone was supposed to create art.
tHE IDEAL MAN WAS CONSIDERED A
UNIVERSAL MAN. Today we use the term RENAISSANCE MAN.
a. BALDASSAIRE CALSTIFLIONE described the RENAISSANCE MAN in his book, THE COURTIER. The IDEAL man had the following qualities:
iii. Well educated
iv Could Sing and Dance
v. Could play music, write poetry, skilled rider of horses, and swordsman.
b. CASTIGLIONE said the IDEAL RENSAISSANCE WOMAN would have these qualities:
i. INSPIRE, but NOT create art
ii. Know the classics
iv. Not be a Fame Seeking type Woman
One WOMAN that actually gained influence was ISABELLA D' ESTE.
She ruled the city state of FERRARA and was a GREAT PATRION OF THE ARTS.
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