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Chapter 19 History Test
Terms in this set (130)
Government controls every aspect of life, using terror to suppress individual rights
Who calls himself "Il Duce" (the leader)
What were the Italian thugs and gangs called who terrorized people who opposed Mussolini?
Who said "The country is nothing without conquest"
What country does Italy invade?
Aggressive nationalism that places the importance of the nation above the value of the individual
What is something that fascism allows that communism doesn't?
What is lost in both communism and fascism?
Established communist government throughout Russia
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
What did Lenin rename Russia?
Who takes control after Lenin dies and accepts no opposition to Communist policies?
How many deaths of peasants did Stalin cause?
Who are outraged by terms of war and peace settlement?
National German Workers' Party (Nazi Party)
What party does Hitler join in 1919?
Totalitarian ideology of the Nazi Party
To overthrow government
In 1923 Hitler and 3,000 other Nazis tried what?
Sentenced him to jail
Authorities crushed the uprising and did what to Hitler?
What did Hitler write that outlined Nazi philosophy and his plans for the nation?
Who did Nazis blame for the loss of WWI?
Aryans (master race)
Hitler called for purifying the ______.
He would stabilize the country from Great Depression
Hitler promised what to Germany that won him a huge following?
Führer "the leader"
What did Hitler want to be called?
Manchuria (northern province of China)
Japan invades ______
Prime minister is assassinated and military takes control
What happened when Japan invaded Manchuria?
Documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during WWI and created the impression that business influenced the U.S. to go to war
What becomes stronger in America prior to them entering the war?
Neutrality Act of 1935
Made it illegal to sell arms to any country at war
Leads fascist revolt in Spain; turns into a Civil War
The sale of arms to either side in the civil war
Congress passes another neutrality act during the Spanish Civil War banning what?
Neutrality Act of 1937
Continued to ban but also required warring countries to buy no military supplies from the U.S. on a "cash and carry" basis
The idea that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent war
Shadow of WWI, unification of German speaking countries seemed reasonable, Nazis would be more interested in peace once they gained territory
What were the reasons Europe didn't try to stop Hitler initially?
What nation's chancellor quickly gives into Hitler's demands?
Unification of Austria and Germany
What territory did Hitler claim when he tried to take over Czechoslovakia?
Allied with France and Soviet Union
What did Czechoslovakia do to resist German demands?
Britain and France agree to Hitler's demands on September 29, 1938
What happened at the Munich Conference?
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Who is known for the phrase "peace in our time"
Concessions in exchange for peace
Hitler demands the return of which city in Poland?
Britain and France
Who comes to Poland's aid?
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Germany and Soviet Union agreed not to go to war with each other
September 1, 1939
When does the war begin?
Tanks, artillery, and soldiers were moved by truck
What was the way of transportation in a blitzkrieg?
October 5, 1939
When is the Polish army defeated by the Germans?
"Sit down war" - period of inactivity waiting for Germany to attack Paris
Norway and Denmark
To get to France, Germany gains control of what two countries?
Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemborg
To avoid the Maginot Line, Germany invades what three countries?
Where are the French and English troops cut off?
-French and English troops are cut off in Belgium
-850 military and civilian ships rescue 335000 stranded British and French soldiers
-France surrenders three weeks later
What happens at the Miracle of Dunkirk?
June 1-4, 1940
When does the Miracle of Dunkirk happen?
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Who said "We shall never surrender"
Crossing the English Channel
What was a major hurdle for the German Army?
August through October 1940
When was the Battle of Britain?
The German Air Force that launches an all-out air battle to destroy the British Royal Air Force (RAF)
What British city does Germany accidentally bomb?
They bomb Berlin in return
How does Britain respond to the bombing of London?
He decides to terrorize them into surrendering
What does Hitler decide to do in retaliation to the bombing of Berlin by the British?
What was Britain's new defensive technology?
The greatly outnumbered RAF
What saved Britain from invasion?
Winston Churchill (praising the pilots)
Who said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few."
October 12, 1940
When does Hitler cancel the British invasion?
Systematic killing of almost 6 million Jews
Nazi implement racial policies
What was outlined in Mein Kampf?
Jews, disabled, Gypsies, homos, and Slavs
Who was targeted by the Nazis?
-took away citizenship from German Jews
-banned marriage between Jews and other Germans
The Nuremberg Laws did what?
"The Night of Broken Glass"
What was the nickname of Kristalnacht?
Nov 9, 1938
When did Kristallnacht happen?
90 Jews were killed, 100s injured, 1000s terrorized, 7500 Jewish businesses and 180 synagogues destroyed
What were the results of Kristallnacht?
The German secret police
Who were the Gestapo?
Arrested 20,000 and released them only if they promised to emigrate or surrender all of their possessions
What did the Gestapo do to Jews?
Between 1933 and the start of the war, how many Jews leave Germany?
Albert Einstein, Otto Frank (Anne Frank's dad)
Who were some famous Jews during this time?
The Nazi laws allow the Jews to take how much money out of Germany?
Was Germany the only country to hate Jews?
U.S. immigration policy allows how many immigrants annually?
SS St. Louis
What ship carried 930 Jewish refugees and was turned away by Cuba and the U.S.?
What meeting determines final solution to the Jewish question?
Places where healthy people work as slave laborers, often dying of malnutrition or exhaustion
What was one of the largest concentration camps?
Where were most of the extermination camps located?
The elderly, young, and infirm
Who was sent to the extermination camps?
100,000 in 300 barracks
How many people were housed in Auschwitz?
Up to how many people a day were killed in the gas chambers?
How many people were estimated to be killed at Auschwitz?
-Germany's sense of injury after WWI
-severe economic problems
-Hitler's control over Germany
-Lack of a strong tradition of representative gov
-Hitler's secret police
-long history of anti-Jewish prejudice in Europe
What were the 6 factors leading to the Holocaust?
Neutrality Act of 1939
Allows US to sell weapons to Britain, "cash and carry" - pay cash, use own ships to transport
Destroyers for Bases
What deal allowed America to give old naval ships to England?
Fight for Freedom Committee
Which American committee urged war on Germany?
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
Which American committee pressed for increase aid to the Allies?
America First Committee (Isolationists)
Which American committee opposes any American intervention
Who is the first president to run for a third term?
Which Republican does FDR defeat in the election?
What were the 4 Freedoms Speech?
Allows the U.S. to lend or lease arms to any country deemed "vital to the defense of the U.S."
He invades Russia
What does Hitler do in June 1941 violating the pact
Hemispheric Defense Zone
Declared the entire western half of the Atlantic was part of the Western Hemisphere, ordered US navy to reveal location of German submarines to the British
Agreement between Roosevelt and Churchill, commitment to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, economic advancement, and freedom of the seas
"Force an incident... which would justify him in opening hostilities" with Germany
Churchill states later on that FDR pledged to what?
The Greer and the Reuben James
What American ships does Germany attack?
"Shoot on sight"
What policy does America adopt?
British territories in Asia
American embargoes Japan to protect what?
Japan receives what percentage of their oil to the U.S.
Export Control Act
Gives US the power to restrict the sale of strategic materials to other nations
Roosevelt sends aid to what nation (besides Britain)
General Douglas MacArthur
Who is sent to the Philippines to begin building up American defenses?
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
What happens on December 7, 1941?
21 ships, 188 planes
How many ships and planes are damaged or destroyed in Pearl Harbor?
How many people died from Pearl Harbor
"A date that will live in infamy"
How does FDR describe Dec 7, 1941?
No; one voted against it
Was Congress's decision to declare war unanimous?
December 11, 1941
When does Italy and Germany declare war on America?
Japan was attacked
The German Treaty with Japan to help them with fighting enemies was only required if...
What does Germany underestimate about America?
-Harsh Treaty of Versailles fueled strong nationalistic feelings
-economic depression led to social unrest and a desperation for strong leadership
-dictators seized control
How did postwar conditions contribute to the rise of dictatorships in Europe?
Felt that remaining a part from European conflict would avoid another war
Why did many Americans support isolationism?
-wanted to avoid war (shadow of WWI)
-unifying a German-speaking people seemed reasonable
-thought Hitler would be more interested in peace once he gained more land
What were 3 reasons European leaders agreed to a policy of appeasement?
Why was Germany able to overtake Poland?
English Channel, radar
Why was Britain able to resist Hitler and the Nazis?
-other countries' restriction on immigration
-Germany was their home
-had no money to leave or were afraid of losing all their savings
Why did many Jews remain in Germany even though they were persecuted?
Exhaustion, disease, malnutrition, execution
What methods did Hitler use to try to exterminate Europe's Jewish population?
Cash and carry allowed the US to aid countries at war
How were the Neutrality Acts revised?
They wanted to stay with a president they knew during a time of unrest
Why did Roosevelt win an unprecedented 3rd term in office?
Allowed the US to supply arms to the Allies
How did the lend-lease act help the Allied war effort?
Japanese surprise attack of Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the US
What finally caused the US to become involved in WWI?
A line of concrete bunkers and fortifications built by France along the German border
The Hebrew term for the Holocaust, meaning "catastrophe"
Materials important for fighting a war
Who may have had Parkinson's disease?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
History test 1
History Test 2
Chapter 16 History
History test #8
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