51 terms

Chapter 4.1 - 4.3

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sugar act
1764; strictly enforced a tax on molasses, colonists pay more money
stamp act
1765; first direct tax that taxed printed materials, colonists protested
quartering act
1765; colonists had to house British standing army and provide provisions
declaratory act
1766; Parliament repeals stamp act, Parliament has the right to tax colonists
townshend acts
1767; taxed a variety of goods, repealed all besides tax on tea
intolerable acts
1774; also known as Coercive Acts, Massachusetts has to pay for destroyed tea, closed Boston Harbor until payment is made
lexington and concord
1775; 8 colonists are killed by British at Lexington defending their weapons stockpile, Patriots attack British on the road killing 200
British advantages
produced more ships and weapons, had an established government, well trained troops, plenty of supplies
colonists disadvantages
starting their government from scratch, Continental Congress struggled to pay for war, soldiers had few supplies
how did British misunderstand the conflict
underestimated the colonies and fought like it was a traditional European war
what were the guidelines of a traditional European war
to capture all major seaports and defeat the army
February 1778
Patriots made an alliance with France
1779
Spain entered the war as France's ally
why did Native Americans ally with British
colonists broke the Proclamation of 1763 and British promised to keep colonists off Native land
effects of the Revolution on women
won respect on the new conception of women as "republican mothers", gained some rights, inspired to seek a larger voice in society
effects of the Revolution on African Americans
joined the army for promise of freedom and sought freedom and leads to emancipation
Treat of Paris
1783; ended the war, granted American independence, gave more land to Patriots than they won in the war
effects of the Revolution on foreign countries
inspired other countries to seek freedom, strain on alliance between France and US
how did the British abandon their allies
didnt take back loyalists and they left Indians vulnerable to American attack
how did the war end
1781 Washington marched troops to Yorktown, French trapped British navy in Chesapeake Bay, Cornwallis surrendered
John Adams
Massachusetts lawyer who fought for independence
Patrick Henry
Virginia representative that used Enlightenment ideas to draft a radical document known as Virginia Resolves
Sons of Liberty
associations that led protests, lead by John Adams
Nonimportation Agreement
colonial consumer boycotts of British exports as a response to the taxes passed by Parliament
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770 when British soldiers killed 5 colonists
Committee of Correspondence
network of local groups that informed colonists of British measures and the opposition to them in the years before the Revolutionary War
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773 protest against British taxes where Bostinians dressed up as Indians and dumped tea into the harbor
First Continental Congress
group of delegates that met in 1774 and represented all American colonies except Georgia
why did Parliament not understand "no taxation without representation"
most British paid taxes but couldnt vote and many British cities didnt elect representatives to Parliament which was supposed to represent everyone in the empire
militia
full time farmers and part time soldiers, also known as minutemen
loyalist
colonist who remained loyal to Britain
Second Continental Congress
assembly of delegates representing every colony that met in 1775 in Philadelphia
Continental Army
army that represented the colonies during the Revolutionary War
George Washington
served as colonial officer in French and Indian War, came from Virginia
Thomas Jefferson
drafted the declaration of independence
Thomas Paine
wrote Common Sense (about independence), immigrant from England, artist, tax collector
Declaration of Independence
document drawn up by Second Continental Congress that announced American independence and reasons for it
natural rights
life, liberty, persuit of happiness; unalienable rights
why did loyalists oppose independence from Britain
felt they must obey Parliament and the crown as legitimate government, feared the result of a war that Britain would win
why did Thomas Paine argue for independence
he felt a republic would provide opportunities to reward merit rather than inherited priviledge
William Howe
British commander, Lord
mercenary
soldiers who fought for hire
Battle of Trenton
1776 battle in New Jersey on Christmas night where Patriot troops marched across Delaware River and defeated the British
Battle of Princeton
1777 battle in New Jersey won by Continental Army
Saratoga
1777 battle won by Patriots that convinced the French to aid the United States
Marquis de Laffayette
French volunteer who provided military expertise to Patriots
Benjamin Franklin
leading American negotiator in Paris
Valley Forge
location in Pennsylvania where Washington's army spent a difficult winter in 1777-1778
Monmouth
1778 battle in New Jersey where neither side won a clear victory
reasons why Patriots continued fighting
Washington's leadership and skill, retreats, help of civilians, helped from French and Spanish
Battle of Bunker Hill
British were massacred, British won because Patriots ran out of ammo