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US history timeline of important events 2

Terms in this set (45)

1700: 250,000 settlers in English colonies

1704: First colonial newspaper- Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick in Boston

1720s: Colonial economic life quickens

1739-1744: Great Awakening- religious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s; George Whitefield and Johnathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attempted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of med-eighteenth century America.

1756-1763: French and Indian War- Part of the Seven Years' War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquians, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceded Florida to Britain, but received Louisiana in return. 1776: Declaration of Independence- approved by Congress on July 4, 1776, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, it formalized the colonies' separation from Britain and laid out the Enlightenment values (best expressed by John Locke) of natural rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" upon which the American Revolution was based.

1777: British defeated at Saratoga- a turning point of the Revolution in October 1777, when an army of 6,000 British soldiers surrendered in New York; the battle resulted from a British attempt to divide the colonies through the Hudson River Valley. The American victory convinced the French to ally with the colonies and assured the ultimate success of independence.

1778: French join the war against the British
1781: Battle of Yorktown- a siege that ended in October

1781 when Washington trapped 8,000 British soldiers on a peninsula in Virginia after a British campaign in the southern colonies; this defeat caused the British to cease large-scale fighting in America and to start negotiations, which eventually led to the colonies' independence.

1781: Articles of Confederation ratified: Articles' strengths -concluded revolutionary war with treaty of Paris in 1783, kept states together with common national citizenship, settled question of western land claims. Article's weaknesses -9 states needed to ratify a bill before it became a law, all states needed to accept an amendment, little or no enforcement of laws, no foreign policy, states printed own currency, federal gov. couldn't tax, no federal army, no judicial system, no national compulsive power over states

1783: Peace treaty signed in Paris (treaty of Paris of 1783)

1784-1787: Northwest Ordinance of 1784, 1785, and 1787: This law provided that the area north of Ohio be divided into three to five territories, and allowed a territory to have a governor, secretary, three judges, and a legislature if inhabited by 5,000 white males. The territory could apply to the U.S. government for statehood if it had 60,000 white males.

1786: Annapolis Convention: In this convention, states near the Chesapeake Bay area talked about the lowering of taxes and tariffs to increase trade between states. Alexander Hamilton told the states to meet one year later in Philadelphia so they could overhaul the Articles of Confederation.

1787: Shays' Rebellion- Captain Daniel Shays led back country farmers in a rebellion because many people were losing their farms through mortgage, foreclosures, and tax delinquencies. Farmers demanded cheaper paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage foreclosures. the rebellion ended when troops broke up Shays' mob in Boston

Constitutional Convention- Delegates from all states but Georgia met in Philadelphia to discuss the Articles of Confederation. This convention resulted in a new constitution. All 55 delegates represented the propertied upper class and most were personally interested in creating a strong central government

1788: Federalist Papers written- This book was made up of 85 essays that were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. They were passed out as essays to support the ratification of the Constitution.

Constitution ratified- The bill of rights are the first ten amendments added to the constitution and enumerated the rights of men. Many colonies refused to sign the Constitution until these rights were added to the Constitution.

1789: George Washington inaugurated as President of the United States

French Revolution begins- Reacting to the oppressive aristocracy, the French middle and lower classes overthrew the king and asserted power for themselves in a violent and bloody revolution. This uprising was inspired by America's independence from England and the Enlightenment ideas
1790: Capital placed on the Potomac River

1793: Citizen Genet- French statesman who came to America in search of monetary aid. He asked for private donations to France and recruited American privateers (pirates plundering for another country)

1794: Whiskey Rebellion- The small farmers of western Pennsylvania rose up in rebellion against an excise tax on whiskey. This tax fell heavily on western farmers who condensed their corn to whiskey. They refused to pay the tax, attacked tax collectors, and began a march to Pittsburgh. President Washington sent 13000 and the rebels' protest quickly ended.

1794: Indians defeated at Fallen Timbers- the last major conflict of the Northwest Territory Indian War between Native Americans and the United States. At the battle, near present-day Toledo, Ohio, General Anthony Wayne (1745-96) led U.S. troops to victory over a confederation of Indian warriors whose leaders included Chief Blue Jacket of the Shawnees and Chief Little Turtle of the Miami's. The Treaty of Greenville, signed the following year, opened up much of present-day Ohio to white settlers.

1795: Jay Treaty- sought to settle outstanding issues between the two countries that had been left unresolved since American independence. The treaty proved unpopular with the American public but did accomplish the goal of maintaining peace between the two nations and preserving U.S. neutrality.

Pinckney Treaty- established intentions of friendship between the United States of America and Spain

1798: Un-declared war with France-also known as the Quasi War fought almost entirely at sea between the United States of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800

1798: Alien and Sedition Acts- fearing an event like The French Revolution in America, this was passed by the Federalist Congress and signed into law by President Adams. These laws included new powers to DEPORT foreigners as well as making it harder for new immigrants to vote
1799: Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions- measures passed by the legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky as a protest against the Federalist Alien and Sedition Acts.
1800: Jefferson elected

1803: Louisiana Purchase- was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles) by the United States from France

1807-1809: Embargo in effect: In 1807, Britain passed the Orders in Council, which required neutral countries to obtain a license from its authorities before trading with France or French colonies. The Royal Navy also outraged Americans by its practice of impressment, or removing seamen from U.S. merchant vessels and forcing them to serve on behalf of the British. In 1809, the U.S. Congress repealed Thomas Jefferson's unpopular Embargo Act, which by restricting trade had hurt Americans more than either Britain or France. Its replacement, the Non-Intercourse Act, specifically prohibited trade with Britain and France. It also proved ineffective, and in turn was replaced with a May 1810 bill stating that if either power dropped trade restrictions against the United States, Congress would in turn resume non-intercourse with the opposing power

1808: Slave trade ended

1809: Non-intercourse Act- Thomas Jefferson lifted the embargos on American shipping to all other markets except Britain and France which failed to harm either or their economies but damaged the US economy because of a lack of trading partners

1812: War with England- British attempts to restrict U.S. trade, the Royal Navy's impressment of American seamen and America's desire to expand its territory fueled this war

1814: Treaty of Ghent- was signed by British and American representatives at Ghent, Belgium, ending the War of 1812. By terms of the treaty, all conquered territory was to be returned, and commissions were planned to settle the boundary of the United States and Canada

1820: Missouri Compromise- federal statute in the United States that regulated slavery in the country's western territories. The compromise, devised by Henry Clay, was agreed to by the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress and passed as a law.

1820: First labor unions formed
- Romanticism flourished in America-Literature movement that included great works such as: Emerson's Representative Men, Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, The House of Seven Gables, Melville's Moby-Dick and Pierre, Thoreau's Walden, and Whitman's Leaves of Grass.

1823: Monroe Doctrine- U.S. foreign policy regarding European countries in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention

1828: Andrew Jackson elected
Railroad era begins- rail lines appeared in many sections of the country, particularly in New England and the Middle States
1831: Nat Turner's rebellion- A religious leader and self-styled Baptist minister, Turner and a group of followers killed some sixty white men, women, and children on the night of August 21. Turner and 16 of his conspirators were captured and executed, but the incident continued to haunt Southern whites. Blacks were randomly killed all over Southhampton County; many were beheaded and their heads left along the roads to warn others. In the wake of the uprising planters tightened their grip on slaves and slavery.

Liberator founded- weekly newspaper of abolitionist crusader William Lloyd Garrison for 35 years (January 1, 1831-December 29, 1865). It was the most influential antislavery periodical in the pre-Civil War period of U.S. history.

1832: Nullification crisis- declared the tariff of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state borders of South Carolina

1834: Whig party formed- A political party that lasted from 1834 to 1860, formed to oppose the policies of President Andrew Jackson, The creation of the party signified the end of one party rule.

1835: Texas Revolution, Republic of Texas established

1837: Panic of 1837- As a result of Jackson's economic policies, the United States went through another depression It resulted in the closure of many banks and record unemployment levels.

1838-1839-Indian Removal Bill/Trail of Tears- as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects
1860: Democratic Party splits apart
-Abraham Lincoln elected 16th President of the United States
- Lower South secedes

1861:Confederate States of America formed
- Civil War begins at Fort Sumter
- Upper South secedes
- North is defeated at the first battle of Bull Run

1862: Battle of Antietam- the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation and France and Great Britain no longer willing to aide south

-Morill Tariff, Homestead Act- Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges was passed by Lincoln

-Emancipation Proclamation issued (effective January 1, 1863) Emancipation Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln in 1862, after Antietam. it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
1864: Grant's wilderness campaign-"scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States
-Sherman takes Atlanta
-Sherman's "March to the Sea"

1865: Sherman takes South and North Carolina
-Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House
-Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery
-Lincoln assassinated
-Andrew Johnson becomes President
-KKK formed- Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War. Terrorist group of White Supremacists in south

1866: in response to black codes in South - passed; Johnson vetoes - overridden
defined citizenship as anyone born in US, except Native Americans - entitled to rights of citizens defined in the Constitution

1867: First Reconstruction Act launches Radical Reconstruction
- Alaska purchased- William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars, calling it his folly.

1868: Fourteenth Amendment guarantees Civil Rights
-Johnson impeached
1900: Gold Standard

1901: Theodore Roosevelt becomes President

1904: Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine

1904-1914: Panama Canal built
1906: Hepburn Act, Pure Food and Drug Act-passed by Theodore Roosevelt after The Jungle was published
- The Jungle-work of fiction by Upton Sinclair about the evils of the Chicago meat packing industry
1912: Election of Woodrow Wilson

1913: Sixteen Amendment authorizing income tax ratified
- Seventeenth Amendment providing for direct elections of Senators ratified
-Federal Reserve System begun- gave the 12 Federal Reserve banks the ability to print money in order to ensure economic stability
- Wilson broadens segregation in civil service

1914: World War 1 begins (US neutral)
-U. S. troops occupy Vera Cruz

1915: U. S. troops sent to Haiti
-Lusitania sunk, U. S. intervened
-KKK revived- new KKK was anti-foreign, anti-Catholic, anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-Communist, anti-internationalist, anti-revolutionist, anti-bootlegger, anti-gambling, anti-adultery, and anti-birth control

1916: Germany issues Sussex pledge-avoided war between Germany and the US over U-boat sinking of commercial ships in Atlantic waters in the early stages of WWI

1917: Bolshevik Revolution- Following the Bolshevik success in Russian Revolution in 1919, Americans feared the eventual fate that communism and other radical political forms would take over the nation resulting in "two red scares"

1917: U.S. enters WW1

1918: WW1 ends
- Treaty of Versailles-puts all the blame on Germany and sets the stage for WWII

1919: Eighteenth Amendment prohibits alcoholic beverages
- Red Scare

1920: Nineteenth Amendment gives women the right to vote
- First radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh

1921: Washington Naval Conference

1924: Revenue Act slashes income tax on wealthy and corporations

1927: Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic

1929: Stock market crashes

1932: Franklin Roosevelt elected
1933: Roosevelt closes bank: Bank holiday- From March 6th to 10th, the banks nationwide would all shut down in order to prevent more bank run and bankrupt. The government would then sort things out.
- "Hundred Days"- During this period of dramatic legislative productivity, FDR laid out the progressive programs that constituted the New Deal.

- Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): Provided employment in government camps for 3 million young men. Construction jobs include reforestation, flood control, fire-fighting etc. This could prevent some to join criminal habits.

-Works Progress Administration (WPA): Authorized by Congress in 1935, employ and provide income for workers on projects such as buildings, bridges, roads which would spend about 11 billion dollars.

- National Recovery Act: Sought to help business, raise prices, control production, and put people back to work. This act established the National Recovery Administration (NRA), with the power to set fair competition codes in all industries.

-Public Works Administration (PWA): Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.

-Securities Exchange Act of 1933: to ensure that buyers of securities receive complete and accurate information before they invest in securities

- Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): Part of the immediate relief, made available many millions of dollars to help farmers to meet their mortgages.

-Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): Agency to determine precisely how much the production and distribution of electricity cost, so to test the fairness of rates charged by private companies. Also brought employment to the area.

-Social Security Act (SSA): Guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, handicapped, and public health.

- Twentieth Amendment: changes inauguration day to January

- Twenty-first Amendment: repeals prohibition

1933: Hitler comes to power in Germany
1934: Gold standard terminated
- -Securities Exchange Act of 1934: created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and authorized Congress as a watchdog administrative agency of stock markets. To protect public against fraud, inside manipulation.
1935: Social Security Act, WP, NLRA-see above

- CIO formed- The new union group that organized large numbers of unskilled workers with the help of the Wagner Act and the National Labor Relations Board

- U. S. Begins neutrality legislation- Prohibit sale of munitions to warring nations, prohibited Americans to ride on ships of warring nations, allowed the president to implement the "cash and carry" style of trade. Proved to be shortsighted which led to its relaxation.

1936: FDR re-elected

1937: FDR attempts to pack Supreme Court- FDR's scheme for gaining Supreme Court approval of New Deal legislation

- Japan invades China- Japanese Army attacked Chinese troops in Manchuria, an attempt by the Japanese Empire to gain control over the province, in order to eventually encompass all of East Asia.

1938: United States Housing Authority- The act required that the construction of new public housing units be matched by the removal of an equal number of substandard dwellings from the local housing supply

-Fair labor Standards Act- was designed to "put a ceiling over hours and a floor under wages" by establishing an eventual maximum 40 weekly hours for most US employers

-Hitler takes Austria, Munich Agreement- Under the pain of Great Depression, the weak Western Powers betrayed Czechoslovakia in 1938, when they let Germany annex Sudetenland. Hitler would then in 1939, take away entire Czechoslovakia as well.

1939: World War 2 begins
1946: U. S. - USSR relations worsen
- "Iron Curtain" speech- Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.

1947: Cold War begins
- Marshall Plan- Introduced by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

-Containment- US foreign policy adopted by President Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances.

1948-1949: Berlin Airlift- Successful effort by the US and UK to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.

-Taft-Hartley- Outlawed "closed" shops (closed to non-union members), made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required that union leaders take non-communist oaths.
-Military integrated

1949: NATO- the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
-Russia explodes the bomb-Russia's first successful atomic bomb test
-Communists control China
1950: Korean War- June 25, 1950, the Korean War began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People's Army poured across the 38th parallel, the boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to the south. This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War. By July, American troops had entered the war on South Korea's behalf. As far as American officials were concerned, it was a war against the forces of international communism itself. After some early back-and-forth across the 38th parallel, the fighting stalled and casualties mounted with nothing to show for them. Meanwhile, American officials worked anxiously to fashion some sort of armistice with the North Koreans. The alternative, they feared, would be a wider war with Russia and China-or even, as some warned, World War III. Finally, in July 1953, the Korean War came to an end. In all, some 5 million soldiers and civilians lost their lives during the war. The Korean peninsula is still divided today.

- Joseph McCarthy- McCarthy spent almost five years trying in vain to expose communists and other left-wing "loyalty risks" in the U.S. government. In the hyper-suspicious atmosphere of the Cold War, insinuations of disloyalty were enough to convince many Americans that their government was packed with traitors and spies. McCarthy's accusations were so intimidating that few people dared to speak out against him. It was not until he attacked the Army in 1954 that his actions earned him the censure of the U.S. Senate.

1951: Twenty-second Amendment limits the President to two terms

1952: Dwight Eisenhower elected President

1953: Industries agree on guaranteed annual wage

1954: Brown v. Board of Education, Supreme Court strikes down "separate but equal."- Unanimous Supreme Court decision in 1954 that ruled segregation in public schools as unconstitutional. Reversed the Plessy v. Ferguson decision's "separate but equal" in 1896.

-Geneva conference: Vietnam divided in 1954 countries that agreed to restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam. Divided Vietnam into north and south in 17th parallel.

1955: Civil Rights movement begins
- Montgomery Bus Boycott, emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr.-Rosa Parks, a black woman who in December 1955 took a seat in the white-only section of a bus. Arrested and sparked the Montgomery bus boycott by blacks. Served notice in the South that blacks would no longer submit to the indignities of segregation.

1957: Sputnik- Russian artificial Earth satellites, I and II were launched by Moscow in 1957. Sparked US fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.

-Eisenhower Doctrine- Proclaimed in 1953 by Congress and President, pledging US military and economic aid to Middle Eastern countries threatened by communist aggression.

-Little rock Crisis- Nine black students tried and were successful to integrate a high school in Little Rock, Arkansas

- Civil Rights Act- Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted since Reconstruction. It was proposed by Congress to President Dwight Eisenhower. Not enforced effectively

1958: First U. S. satellite - The first successful U.S. satellite, Explorer I, was launched into Earth orbit by the Army
- ICBM-intercontinental ballistic missile- The United States and the Soviet Union were involved in a race to discover who had more missiles and war equipment. The missile gap was the difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had, thus contribute to the fear.

- NASA-US reaction to Sputnik to be the first to reach the moon
- U. S. occupies Lebanon- a political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention
1960: U-2 crisis/ Paris Summit: U-2 shot down over Russia- In 1960 an American U-2 spy plane was shot down in the USSR. US claimed it was for weather researching, but was forced to confess when the Soviets produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to prove their claim of being spied aerially. This would cause the collapse of Paris Summit. Khrushchev walks out of Paris Summit

- Soviet and Chinese split- The political split between the Soviet Union and China began when the relatively harmonious relations between the two countries became acrimonious in 1959 after Khrushchev opened talks with the USA in pursuit of his policy of "peaceful coexistence".

-John F. Kennedy elected President

-non-violent protests against segregation- formed in 1960 by southern black students, advocate civil rights by sit-ins, wade-ins, lie-ins, and pray-ins to compel equal treatment.

1961: Freedom rides- The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional.

-Twenty-third Amendment: gives District of Columbia the right to vote for President

- Berlin crisis: tensions between Russia and the US came to a head after the construction of the Berlin Wall

- Peace Corps: Volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

-Bay of Pigs: In April 1961, a group of Cuban exile, supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. The invasion ended in disaster, and made Fidel Castro align with the Soviets. HUGE fail, destroyed US and Cuban relations

1961Vietnam war begins- 16,000 us men in Vietnam
1962: University of Mississippi integrated
- Cuban Missile Crisis- When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the US, took down the missiles. US also promised to take down missiles at Turkey.

1963: Civil Rights march on Washington- In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.

-JFK assassinated-Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated President Kennedy on November 1963 who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. Oswald was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.

-Feminine Mystique-Betty Friedan American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".

1964: Free speech movement at Berkeley- was the first of the 1960s campus student movements to make headlines all over the world. Lasting a little over two months, it ended with the arrest of 773 persons for occupying the administration building, the removal of the campus administration, and a vast enlargement of student rights to use the University campus for political activity and debate.

-Beatles emerged -4 musicians from Liverpool, England that started a "British Invasion" of the popular music charts in America that had a huge impact on political, social, and culture trends in the 1960's and is still being felt today

- Twenty-fourth Amendment outlaws the poll tax as a means to restrict voting rights to minorities

- Great Society- War on poverty- Programs of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society that were specifically aimed at assisting the poor. Among these programs was volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), Medicaid, and the creation of the Office of Economic Opportunity.

- Gulf of Tonkin- 1964 Congressional resolution that authorized President Johnson to commit US troops to South Vietnam because North Vietnam allegedly fired on US ships
1967: Detroit Riot- was one of the most violent urban revolts in the 20th century. It came as an immediate response to police brutality but underlying conditions including segregated housing and schools and rising black unemployment helped drive the anger of the rioters

-Peace movement in the U. S.- also known as the counterculture, as young Americans in 60s who rejected conventional customs & mainstream culture

1968: Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. murdered

- Tet Offensive- North Vietnamese forces launched massive attacks on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), but was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ, more anti-war sentiment.

- Johnson won't seek re-election-before the Democratic Convention was held, Johnson tells the national press on TV that he will not accept any nomination from the Democratic party to be re-elected as president.

- Richard Nixon elected President

1969: Vietnamization- Nixon's policy that involved withdrawing 540,000 US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time. It also included a gradual takeover of the South Vietnamese taking responsibility of fighting their own war by American-provided money, weapons, training, and advice.

-First man on the moon-the US and NASA put Neil Armstrong on the moon

- Nixon proposed New Federalism- turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems); attempts by Presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants.
1970: Massacre at Kent State- On May 4, l970 members of the Ohio National Guard fired into a crowd of Kent State University demonstrators, killing four and wounding nine Kent State students. The impact of the shootings was dramatic. The event triggered a nationwide student strike that forced hundreds of colleges and universities to close

-EPA established- along with the Occupational Health and Safety Admin. (OSHA) to set safety standards in workplaces.

-Cambodian invasion creates anti-war turbulence

-SALT talks begin- Anti-ballistic missile treaty which set the limit of two clusters of defensive missiles per nation. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks stopped the numbers of long-range nuclear missiles for 5 years.

1971: Nixon opens talks with China

-Wage-price controls-Nixon ordered a freeze on prices which turned out to be an utter and complete failure for the US economy

-My Lai massacre revealed- A Japanese village that housed 300-500 elderly, women, and children. 28 American soldiers shot the elderly, raped the women and children, and threw the remains in ditches. Soldiers had severe paranoia when they could not identify Viet Cong.

-Pentagon Papers published- Articles by The New York Times about a top-secret study of America's involvement in the Vietnam War. The information was "leaked" to the newspaper by the former Pentagon official Daniel Ellsberg.

1972: Intensive bombing of North Vietnam
- Watergate investigation begins- A burglary at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House. Disclosure of his involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President
- Nixon re-elected
-GNP- Gross National Product- over 1 trillion

1973: Cease-fire in Vietnam
- U. S. forces withdraw

-Spiro Agnew resigns- vice president, 1969-1973, a vocal critic of antiwar and civil rights opponents of the Nixon administration; he resigned the vice presidency in 1973 when it was discovered he has accepted bribes as governor of Maryland and as vice president

1974: Watergate tapes
- Nixon resigns, Ford's pardon of Nixon's crime
- Serious inflation and recession

1975: Vietnam falls
- 44% of married women employed
1976: Bicentennial-200th anniversary of the USA's birth
-Jimmy Carter elected President

1977: Human rights Act: to secure an end in the District of Columbia to discrimination for any reason other than that of individual merit, including, but not limited to, discrimination by reason of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital status, personal appearance, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression familial status, family responsibilities, matriculation, political affiliation, genetic information, disability, source of income, status as a victim of an intrafamily offense, and place of residence or business.

1978: Camp David Accords- First signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.

- Panama Canal treaties ratified

1979: SALT 2 completed- A second treaty was signed to cut back the weaponry of the US and the USSR because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for USSR's invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.

-U. S. recognizes communist China

-American Embassy in Iran occupied- In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held 53 American diplomats hostage for over a year. The crisis weakened the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Reagan became president.

-USSR invaded Afghanistan
2000: George W. Bush elected President of the United States

- April 1, 2000 - The 2000 census enumerates a population of 281,421,906, increasing 13.2% since 1990. As regions, the South and West continued to pick up the majority of the increase in population, moving the geographic center of U.S. population to Phelps County, Missouri.

- April 3, 2000 - The ruling in the case of the United States versus Microsoft states that the company did violate anti-trust laws by diminishing the capability of its rivals to compete.

June 1, 2000 - For the first time since 1851, the United States of America does not participate in a major World's Fair, the Hannover 2000 World Expo, despite a record number, 187, of international participants. President Bill Clinton had withdrawn U.S. participation late in 1999 after agreement to participate in 1997. Congressional apathy toward participation in world events continues a decline in U.S. involvement after the fall of the Soviet Union and victory in the Cold War. A consequence of this policy has led to a rise, among some experts, of anti-American sentiment and a decline of U.S. influence in diplomatic affairs. Less than half, 18.1 million, of the original attendance estimate, 40 million, visit Hannover's event.

November 7, 2000 - George W. Bush, son of the former President, and Vice President Al Gore hold a virtual dead-heat for the presidency, with a disputed vote in Florida holding off the naming of the winner of the Presidential Election until the Supreme Court of the United States voted in favor of Bush on December 12. This ruling gave Florida to the Bush camp by a 527 vote majority and a victory in the Electoral College, 271-266, despite gaining less popular votes than Gore.

November 7, 2000 - Hillary Rodham Clinton wins a seat for the United States Senate from New York. It is the first time a former First Lady wins public office.

December 28, 2000 - Montgomery Ward, the retail giant since its founding one hundred and twenty-eight years before, announces its intention to cease business. Competition from newer, low-cost retail behemoths such as Wal-Mart lead to its demise.
January 6, 2001 - Certification of the Electoral College victory of the 2000 United States Presidential election in the U.S. Senate confirms George W. Bush as the victor, with Dick Cheney as his Vice-President.

April 1, 2001 - China-U.S. incident. An American spy plane collides with a fighter plane of China and makes an emergency landing in Hainan, China. The U.S. crew is detained for ten days.

September 11, 2001 - Islamic fundamentalist terrorists hijack four U.S. airliners and crash them into the Pentagon and the World Trade Center in New York City. The attack of two planes levels the World Trade Center and the crash of one plane inflicts serious damage to the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, causing nearly 3,000 deaths. The fourth plane is heroically crashed by passengers into a Shanksville, Pennsylvania cornfield when they learn of the plot, preventing destruction of another structure in Washington, D.C., supposed to be the White House or the Capitol building. The plot is attributed to the Al-Qaeda organization led by Osama Bin Laden.

September 18, 2001 - Anthrax attacks by mail from Princeton, New Jersey against news and government targets begin. Federal officials announce the first case on October 4.

October 7, 2001 - In response to the tragedy of September 11, the United States military, with participation from its ally the United Kingdom, commence the first attack in the War on Terrorism on the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. By November 12, the Taliban government leaves the capital, Kabul.
July 1, 2008 - A report by the U.S. embassy in Iraq states that 15 of the 18 goals set for the Iraqi government have been met, largely due to the surge implemented over the last year. The increase of 21,500 United States troops, commonly known as the surge, reduced violence and restored order to the nation, allowing the government of Iraq to focus more on solving other problems needed to establish a stable nation.

August 29, 2008 - John McCain chooses Sarah Palin, 1st term Governor of Alaska, as his running mate, making the contest between Barack Obama and himself, the first time a presidential election included both an African-American candidate and a woman amongst the Presidential and Vice Presidential nominees for president among the Democratic and Republican tickets.

October 3, 2008 - The United States Congress passes legislation, signed by President Bush, for a $700 billion bailout, the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, giving the Treasury Department authority to assist distressed Wall Street and banking businesses of the United States due to the housing, banking, and subprime mortgage crises caused by excessive greed and speculation among Wall Street firms. This economic distress, coupled with oil prices above $140 per barrel during the summer, deepened the world economic crises that had been brewing all year. The bailout was supported by current President George W. Bush and both presidential candidates, Barack Obama and John McCain.

November 4, 2008 - Barack Obama, Democratic Senator from Illinois, the land of Abraham Lincoln, wins a landslide margin in the Electoral College, 365 to 173 in the election for the 44th President of the USA over John McCain, making him the first African-American president in the history of the United States of America.
January 20, 2009 - Barack Obama takes the oath of office for President of the United States, becoming the first African-American president in the history of the nation. The Democratic Senator from Illinois comes into the office on a message of Change. The city of Washington, D.C. hosts more than one million visitors to the inauguration, covering the National Mall in a way reminiscent of the Civil Rights March of Martin Luther King forty-six years earlier.

April 15, 2009 - After a succession of big government spending projects beginning in the Bush administration and expanded under President Obama, 750 grass roots Tea Party protests spring up across the nation. More than one half million citizens concerned with increased deficits due to actions such as the bailout of the banking industry, car industry, potential cap and trade legislation, and other administration projects that project a ten trillion dollar deficit over the next decade take part.

June 11, 2009 - The H1N1 virus, named the Swine Flu, is deemed a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. This is the first such designation since the Hong Kong flu in 1967-1968.

October 31, 2009 - The economic recession continues to deepen as jobless claims climb above 10.0%, reaching 10.2% with October's monthly figures. This occurs despite efforts by the Obama administration to ramp up massive government spending pushed by the $780 billion economic stimulus package passed earlier in the year.

December 1, 2009 - President Obama announces a surge of 30,000 additional troops to Afghanistan to stem increased efforts by the Taliban in the country. The surge, which was suggested by military officers, was not popular with the liberal base of the Democratic party which had put the President in power on a pledge to end both Middle Eastern wars. The war in Afghanistan, which started as a response to the terror attacks on 9/11/2001, and the war on terror in general, comes into focus again on December 25 when an airliner headed for Detroit is attacked by a Muslim extremist, 23-year-old Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, who attempts to detonate a bomb, but fails
April 15, 2013 - Two bombs explode near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, killing three and injuring hundreds in a terrorist attack coordinated by two brothers associated with radical Islam. The attack caused the shutdown of the city as police and federal officials searched and apprehended the suspects within four days of the attack.

May 17, 2013 - Congressional hearings begin on the IRS scandal of group targeting that began two years prior. The Internal Revenue Service is accused of targeting conservative groups for additional scrutiny in tax status matters, including groups like the Tea Party, whose stances include lower taxes and smaller government, plus other patriotic and religious organizations. This breach of protocol from a government agency where all U.S. citizens file taxes has caused concern from both Republican, Democrat, and independent political groups.

August 28, 2013 - One hundred thousand visitors throng to the Lincoln Memorial and the National Mall in Washington, D.C. for the 50th anniversary commemoration ceremony of Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech. Speakers at the anniversary include two former presidents; Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and current President Barack Obama, the first African American to hold the office. Nearly 250,000 people came to the original speech in 1963.

October 1, 2013 - The Affordable Care Act, Obamacare, begins registering people for the expanded federal government health insurance program despite a variety of waivers and problems in implementing the cumbersome rules and regulations of the program. Various states have decided to allow the federal government to run the exchanges for them, while some states and the District of Columbia set up their own exchanges to sell the policies.