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Arts and Humanities
Practice Test Terms: ESOL ORELA
Terms in this set (36)
occurs in unstressed word or syllable -schwa most common
is an unstressed central vowel that is a shorter version of a similar sounding but longer vowel.
GRAMMAR Those words which have a mainly grammatical function (also called grammar words). Includes auxiliary verbs, determiners, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and some adverbs. Contrast with content words. Of the 50 most common words in English, 49 are these.
Words that are mainly used as linking or supporting words for nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. For example, prepositions ('to', 'for', 'by') and articles ('a', 'the') are two types of function words. They have little or no meaning when they occur alone, but they have an important effect on the meanings of the words their company.
a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning
Inflection is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, number, gender
a morpheme that can stand alone yet still carry meaning
The part of the word that carries meaning only when attached to a free morpheme (the -er in farmer)
single syllable language
Fixed Stress Language
stress on parts of words are predictable
Upper or lower limit, -est
spoken words and phrases that do not contribute directly to the content of what is being said but still serve various functions (e.g.,clarifying the speaker's intentions)
"oh, well, now, then"
A form of language appropriate to a particular situation.
is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language. For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as in spin) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language.
Stages of Second Language Acquisition
1) preproduction 2) early production 3) speech emergence 4) intermediate fluency 5) advanced fluency
(Cummins, J. 1979-1980) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: Skills necessary for functioning in every day life, face-to face interactions. These skills usually take about two years to develop in most second language learners.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Proficiency in academic language development needed for content areas with specialized, lexical terminology; higher level of language skills that are not used in everyday conversations; usually takes 5-7 years to develop.
Verbs which are used to support another verb in a sentence and have a grammatical function such as establishing tense, aspect, or person. e.g.: be, do, have
Two-way bilingual immersion
instruction in two different languages, instruction and classwork in both languages, instruction and classwork in both languages, only one language used for instruction without translation
relaxed environment (dim lights, soft music) students listen to dialogues then practice them Students may "become" a character in the target language. Designed to place as much language teaching emphasis on learner personality and motivation as that typically placed on intellect; Georgi Lozanov
Title III No Child Left Behind
each state is required to report increases in the percentage of students making progress in learning English, increases in percentage of students achieving English proficiency; ELL students making Adequate Yearly Progress
Lau v. Nichols
Federally funded schools must provide their non-English speaking student with either English instruction or instruction in their native language
Castañeda v. Pickard
Bilingual ed must be based on "sound educational theory", program must be "implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space", the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers/handicap
Player v. Doe
If the child was born on the soil - free and appropriate education(FAFE)
Keyes v. School District One
black/hispanic parents sued schools to stop segregation
The branch of linguistics that studies the meaning of words, their historical and psychological development, their connotations, and their relation to one another.
The study of how the meaning conveyed by a word or sentence depends on the context in which it is used (such as time, place, social relationship between speaker and hearer, and speaker's assumption about the hearer's beliefs). Ex: He kicked a (ball) into the net for a goal. She dribbled the (ball) down the court and made a three point shot. She putted the (ball) a distance of eighteen feet. She smacked the (ball) over the left field fence for a homerun.
WORDS THAT HAVE THE SAME SOUND AND SAME SPELLING BUT DIFFER IN MEANING.
Branch of biology dealing with the form and structure of animals and plants; form and structure of an organism or any of its parts
The study of the patterns and distributions of speech sounds in a language and the tacit rules for their pronunciation.
Behaviorist Language Theory
Skinner thought language development followed familiar learning principles- association, imitation, reinforcement
Chomsky Language Theory
We are born with an innate ability to communicate
♣ LA can only be accounted for by innate, biological LA system
♣ Universal Grammar
♣ Children construct grammar through a process of hypothesis testing
♣ Process of acquisition: hypothesis testing and creative construction of syntactic rules
♣ Role of child is primary
Interactionist Language Theory
states that social interactions play crucial role in language. Social experience interacts with innate biological language abilities.
Response to Intervention
Systematic assistance to children who are having difficulty learning. Seeks to prevent academic failure through early intervention, frequent progress measurement, and increasingly intensive research-based instructional interventions
requires students to practice all the language skills in a highly integrated, communicative way while learning content (three models: theme-based - language skills are integrated in the study of themes or broad topics (e.g. drug abuse, recycling, homelessness); adjunct - language and content courses are taught separately but closely coordinated; sheltered - English is simplified to ELL's level of proficiency while teaching content)
strategies that helps students regulate and control emotions, motivations, and attitudes toward learning (e.g. cooperative group work, self-talk)
having to do with knowing or perceiving related to the mental processes; N. cognition: the mental process of knowing
Refers to any deliberate process where one becomes aware of the process one uses to think. In the context of reading, the term refers to the knowledge of the approaches and patterns whereby one comes to understand and analyze a text and to hold a sense of its particular meanings, and meaningfulness, in one's mind.
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